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Raoul Island
Raoul Island (''Sunday Island'') is the largest and northernmost of the main Kermadec Islands, south south-west of 'Ata Island of Tonga and north north-east of New Zealand's North Island. It has been the source of vigorous volcanic activity during the past several thousand years that was dominated by dacitic explosive eruptions. The area of the anvil-shaped island, including fringing islets and rocks mainly in the northeast, but also a few smaller ones in the southeast, is . The highest elevation is Moumoukai Peak, at an elevation of . Although Raoul is the only island in the Kermadec group large enough to support settlement, it lacks a safe harbour, and landings from small boats can be made only in calm weather. The island consists of two mountainous areas, one with summits of and , and the other with a summit of , the two separated by a depression which is the caldera of the Raoul volcano. History Evidence from archaeological sites on the northern coast of Raoul Isla ...
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Māori Language
Māori (), or ('the Māori language'), also known as ('the language'), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of mainland New Zealand. Closely related to Cook Islands Māori, Tuamotuan, and Tahitian, it gained recognition as one of New Zealand's official languages in 1987. The number of speakers of the language has declined sharply since 1945, but a Māori-language revitalisation effort has slowed the decline. The 2018 New Zealand census reported that about 186,000 people, or 4.0% of the New Zealand population, could hold a conversation in Māori about everyday things. , 55% of Māori adults reported some knowledge of the language; of these, 64% use Māori at home and around 50,000 people can speak the language "very well" or "well". The Māori language did not have an indigenous writing system. Missionaries arriving from about 1814, such as Thomas Kendall, learned to speak Māori, and introduced the Latin alphabet. In 1 ...
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Tai Rua
The Waianakarua River is a river in North Otago, New Zealand, flowing into the Pacific Ocean. It is crossed by Highway 1 at Waianakarua, south of Herbert, by an old historic bridge. The river has a catchment size of approximately 260 km2. The tiver has three main branches, simply known as the South, Middle, and North branches. All three branches flow from the slopes of the Horse Range. The South and Middle branches have their source in the hills between Morrisons and Dunback. The North branch rises in several small streams close to Morrisons, the longest of which is called Waddells Creek, which rises 10 km north of Morrisons close to the southern end of the Kakanui Range. A notable archaeological site, a pre-European moa-hunter settlement, exists at Tai Rua, just north of the river's mouth.Gathercole, P., (2010)Tai Rua, North Otago''Archaeology in New Zealand'', 53 (4), pp. 264–269. See also *List of rivers of New Zealand This is a list of all waterways named as ri ...
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Meteorological
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences (which include atmospheric chemistry and physics) with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It was not until after the elucidation of the laws of physics, and more particularly in the latter half of the 20th century the development of the computer (allowing for the automated solution of a great many modelling equations) that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important branch of weather forecasting is marine weather forecasting as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects also include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water. Meteorological phe ...
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Karl August Nerger
Karl August Nerger (25 February 1875 – 12 January 1947) was a naval officer of the Imperial German Navy in World War I, who achieved fame and recognition during the war for his command of the auxiliary cruiser '' SMS Wolf''. Nerger was born in Rostock, Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Nerger had entered the Navy as a cadet in April 1893, and as a junior officer participated in the China Relief Expedition during the Boxer Rebellion, where he had also been decorated for bravery and intrepidity. In Summer 1914, then- Korvettenkapitän Nerger had taken command of the light cruiser SMS ''Stettin'', which he commanded until taking over SMS ''Wolf'' in March 1916. As captain of the ''Wolf'', he led the commerce raider on a 451-day expedition, the longest voyage of a warship during World War I, until May 1918, and was promoted to Fregattenkapitän on 13 January 1917. In May 1918, he became commander of minesweeper units of the High Seas Fleet, a command he held until war's end. He retired on ...
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SMS Wolf (1913)
SMS ''Wolf'' (formerly the Hansa freighter ''Wachtfels'') was an armed merchant raider or auxiliary cruiser of the Imperial German Navy in World War I. She was the fourth ship of the Imperial Navy bearing this name (and is therefore often referred to in Germany as ''Wolf IV''), following two gunboats and another auxiliary cruiser that was decommissioned without seeing action. Description and history As a commerce raider, the ''Wolf'' was equipped with six guns, three SK L/55 guns and several smaller caliber weapons as well as four torpedo tubes. She also carried over 450 mines to be dropped outside enemy ports; she laid minefields in the Indian Ocean and off Australia's southern coast which claimed several ships. Her commander was ''Fregattenkapitän'' (Commander) Karl August Nerger who was in charge until her return to Kiel, Germany in February 1918. The ''Wolf'' had not been designed for speed and her top speed was a mere . Her advantages included deception (fake funnel and m ...
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The Encyclopedia Of New Zealand
''Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand'' is an online encyclopedia established in 2001 by the New Zealand Government's Ministry for Culture and Heritage. The web-based content was developed in stages over the next several years; the first sections were published in 2005, and the last in 2014 marking its completion. ''Te Ara'' means "the pathway" in the Māori language, and contains over three million words in articles from over 450 authors. Over 30,000 images and video clips are included from thousands of contributors. History New Zealand's first recognisable encyclopedia was ''The Cyclopedia of New Zealand'', a commercial venture compiled and published between 1897 and 1908 in which businesses or people usually paid to be covered. In 1966 the New Zealand Government published ''An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand'', its first official encyclopedia, in three volumes. Although now superseded by ''Te Ara'', its historical importance led to its inclusion as a separate digital ...
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HMS Herald (1824)
HMS ''Herald'' was an 28-gun sixth-rate corvette of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1822 as HMS ''Termagant'', commissioned in 1824 as HMS ''Herald'' and converted to a survey ship in 1845. After serving as a chapel ship from 1861, she was sold for breaking in 1862. Construction and career ''Termagant'' was launched at the East India Company dockyard at Cochin, British India on 15 November 1822. Lieutenant Robert Wallace Dunlop commissioned on 30 July 1822 to sail her to the United Kingdom. She arrived at Portsmouth on 7 July 1823. In July Captain Lord Henry Frederick Thynne took command, though he had nominally been appointed about a year earlier, on 30 July 1822. Atlantic service The vessel was renamed ''Herald'' on 15 May 1824, and commissioned on 16 July 1824. At this time she was rated a yacht. Commander Henry John Leeke recommissioned her on 31 May 1824. He sailed her to St Petersburg, the West Indies, back to England from Havana, then to Quebec, and finally to M ...
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Henry Mangles Denham
Vice Admiral Sir Henry Mangles Denham (28 August 1800 – 3 July 1887) was a Royal Navy officer who went on to be Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Station. Early career Denham entered the navy in 1809. He served on from 1810 to 1814, initially under Captain Martin White, engaged in survey work in the Channel Islands. He became midshipman while serving on ''Vulture''. He continued to work on the Channel Islands survey until 1817, again under White. In 1817, White took command of the survey vessel and Denhham worked under him on surveys in the English Channel and Ireland. He was promoted to lieutenant in 1822. From October 1827, he was lieutenant-commander in , surveying the coast of France. From September 1828 to March 1835, he surveyed the Bristol Channel, and the ports of Liverpool and Milford. In the early 1830s the expansion of the Port of Liverpool was being severely restricted by the silting of the channels leading to the port. The Dock Trustees asked the Admiralty for he ...
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Britannia (1783 Whaler)
''Britannia'' was a 301 burthen ton full-rigged whaler built in 1783 in Bridport, England, and owned by the whaling firm Samuel Enderby & Sons. She also performed two voyages transporting convicts to Port Jackson. She was wrecked in 1806 off the coast of New South Wales. Career First convict voyage Under the command of Thomas Melvill (not Melville), ''Britannia'' was one of 11 ships that departed from the United Kingdom in early 1791 as part of the Third Fleet, bound for the Sydney penal settlement. ''Britannia'' departed Portsmouth, England, on 27 March 1791 and arrived in Sydney Cove on 14 October 1791. She embarked 150 prisoners, of whom 21 died during the course of the voyage. First whaling voyage She afterwards went whaling in the South Seas, leaving on 24 October. She returned to Port Jackson on 10 November. On her first day out she was in company with ''William and Mary''. They killed seven whales, but were only able to retrieve two. ''Britannia''s share of the takings ...
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William Raven
William Raven (1756–1814) was an English master mariner, naval officer and merchant. He commanded the whaler and sealing vessel ''Britannia'' and the naval store ship in Australian and New Zealand waters from 1792 until 1799. While in command of ''Britannia'' under contract to the British East India Company, he mapped the Loyalty Islands of Maré, Lifou, Tiga and Ouvéa Ouvéa () or Uvea is a commune in the Loyalty Islands Province of New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean. The settlement of Fayaoué , on Ouvéa Island, is the administrative centre of the commune. Geography Ouv ... between August 1793 and May 1796. Raven was granted of land in the vicinity of Tennyson Point, New South Wales in 1795, plus another in 1799. The grant was known as Grove Farm. These Eastern Farms, now Kissing Point, properties were managed for him by the brewer James Squire of Kissing Point until Squire's death in 1822. The tip of the peninsula into t ...
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Polynesian Navigation
Polynesian navigation or Polynesian wayfinding was used for thousands of years to enable long voyages across thousands of kilometers of the open Pacific Ocean. Polynesians made contact with nearly every island within the vast Polynesian Triangle, using outrigger canoes or double-hulled canoes. The double-hulled canoes were two large hulls, equal in length, and lashed side by side. The space between the paralleled canoes allowed for storage of food, hunting materials, and nets when embarking on long voyages. Polynesian navigators used wayfinding techniques such as the navigation by the stars, and observations of birds, ocean swells, and wind patterns, and relied on a large body of knowledge from oral tradition. Navigators travelled to small inhabited islands using wayfinding techniques and knowledge passed by oral tradition from master to apprentice, often in the form of song. Generally, each island maintained a guild of navigators who had very high status; in times of famine or ...
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Thomas Higham (archaeologist)
Thomas Higham is an archaeological scientist and radiocarbon dating specialist. He has worked as Professor of Archaeological Science at the University of Oxford, UK, where he was the Director of the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU) in the Research Lab for Archaeology and the History of Art. He is best known for his work in dating the Neanderthal extinction and the arrival of modern humans in Europe. He took up a post of Professor of Scientific Archaeology at the University of Vienna in August 2021. Early life and education Higham grew up in Dunedin, New Zealand, the eldest of four children of Polly and Charles Higham; his father is an archaeologist specialising in the prehistory of southeast Asia. After completing his secondary education at Otago Boys' High School, he studied Archaeology at the University of Otago, receiving a BA Honours degree in 1988 and a master's degree in 1990. Higham became interested in radiocarbon dating and moved to the University of Waika ...
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