Regression Dilution
Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the linear regression slope towards zero (the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable. Consider fitting a straight line for the relationship of an outcome variable ''y'' to a predictor variable ''x'', and estimating the slope of the line. Statistical variability, measurement error or random noise in the ''y'' variable causes uncertainty in the estimated slope, but not bias: on average, the procedure calculates the right slope. However, variability, measurement error or random noise in the ''x'' variable causes bias in the estimated slope (as well as imprecision). The greater the variance in the ''x'' measurement, the closer the estimated slope must approach zero instead of the true value. It may seem counterintuitive that noise in the predictor variable ''x'' induces a bias, but noise in the outcome variable ''y'' does not. Recall that linear regression ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Visualization Of Errorsinvariables Linear Regression
Visualization or visualisation may refer to: *Visualization (graphics), the physical or imagining creation of images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message * Data visualization, the graphic representation of data * Information visualization, the study of visual representations of abstract data * Music visualization, animated imagery based on a piece of music *Mental image, the experience of images without the relevant external stimuli * "Visualization", a song by Blank Banshee on the 2012 album ''Blank Banshee 0'' See also * Creative visualization (other) * Visualizer (other) * * * * Graphics * List of graphical methods, various forms of visualization * Guided imagery, a mindbody intervention by a trained practitioner * Illustration, a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process * Image, an artifact that depicts visual perception, such as a photograph or other picture * Infographics Infographics (a clipped ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wayne Fuller
Wayne Arthur Fuller (born June 15, 1931) is an American statistician who has specialised in econometrics, survey sampling and time series analysis. He was on the staff of Iowa State University from 1959, becoming a Distinguished Professor in 1983. Fuller received his degrees from Iowa State University, with a B.S. in 1955, an M.S. in 1957 and a Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics in 1959. During his long career at Iowa State, he supervised 88 Ph.D. or M.S. dissertations. Fuller is a fellow of the American Statistical Association, the Econometric Society, the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and the International Statistical Institute. Fuller also served as an editor of the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Journal of the American Statistical Association, The American Statistician, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, and Survey Methodology. He also served on numerous National Academy of Science panels and was a member of the Committee on National Statistics. Wa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rasch Model
The Rasch model, named after Georg Rasch, is a psychometric model for analyzing categorical data, such as answers to questions on a reading assessment or questionnaire responses, as a function of the tradeoff between the respondent's abilities, attitudes, or personality traits, and the item difficulty. For example, they may be used to estimate a student's reading ability or the extremity of a person's attitude to capital punishment from responses on a questionnaire. In addition to psychometrics and educational research, the Rasch model and its extensions are used in other areas, including the health profession, agriculture, and market research The mathematical theory underlying Rasch models is a special case of item response theory. However, there are important differences in the interpretation of the model parameters and its philosophical implications that separate proponents of the Rasch model from the item response modeling tradition. A central aspect of this divide relates to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Statistical Population
In statistics, a population is a set of similar items or events which is of interest for some question or experiment. A statistical population can be a group of existing objects (e.g. the set of all stars within the Milky Way galaxy) or a hypothetical and potentially infinite group of objects conceived as a generalization from experience (e.g. the set of all possible hands in a game of poker). A common aim of statistical analysis is to produce information about some chosen population. In statistical inference, a subset of the population (a statistical ''sample'') is chosen to represent the population in a statistical analysis. Moreover, the statistical sample must be unbiased and accurately model the population (every unit of the population has an equal chance of selection). The ratio of the size of this statistical sample to the size of the population is called a ''sampling fraction''. It is then possible to estimate the ''population parameters'' using the appropriate sample s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Statistical Unit
In statistics, a unit is one member of a set of entities being studied. It is the main source for the mathematical abstraction of a "random variable". Common examples of a unit would be a single person, animal, plant, manufactured item, or country that belongs to a larger collection of such entities being studied. Experimental and sampling units Units are often referred to as being either experimental units, sampling units or units of observation: * An "experimental unit" is typically thought of as one member of a set of objects that are initially equal, with each object then subjected to one of several experimental treatments. Put simply, it is the smallest entity to which a treatment is applied. * A "sampling unit" is typically thought of as an object that has been sampled from a statistical population. This term is commonly used in opinion polling and survey sampling. For example, in an experiment on educational methods, methods may be applied to classrooms of students. This w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pearson Correlation Coefficient
In statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC, pronounced ) ― also known as Pearson's ''r'', the Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient (PPMCC), the bivariate correlation, or colloquially simply as the correlation coefficient ― is a measure of linear correlation between two sets of data. It is the ratio between the covariance of two variables and the product of their standard deviations; thus, it is essentially a normalized measurement of the covariance, such that the result always has a value between −1 and 1. As with covariance itself, the measure can only reflect a linear correlation of variables, and ignores many other types of relationships or correlations. As a simple example, one would expect the age and height of a sample of teenagers from a high school to have a Pearson correlation coefficient significantly greater than 0, but less than 1 (as 1 would represent an unrealistically perfect correlation). Naming and history It was developed by Kar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Statistics
Statistics (from German language, German: ''wikt:Statistik#German, Statistik'', "description of a State (polity), state, a country") is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model to be studied. Populations can be diverse groups of people or objects such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of statistical survey, surveys and experimental design, experiments.Dodge, Y. (2006) ''The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms'', Oxford University Press. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey sample (statistics), samples. Representative sampling as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Measurement
Measurement is the quantification of attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other objects or events. In other words, measurement is a process of determining how large or small a physical quantity is as compared to a basic reference quantity of the same kind. The scope and application of measurement are dependent on the context and discipline. In natural sciences and engineering, measurements do not apply to nominal properties of objects or events, which is consistent with the guidelines of the ''International vocabulary of metrology'' published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. However, in other fields such as statistics as well as the social and behavioural sciences, measurements can have multiple levels, which would include nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales. Measurement is a cornerstone of trade, science, technology and quantitative research in many disciplines. Historically, many measurement systems existed fo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

The Science Of Mental Ability
''The'' () is a grammatical article in English, denoting persons or things that are already or about to be mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers, or speakers. It is the definite article in English. ''The'' is the most frequently used word in the English language; studies and analyses of texts have found it to account for seven percent of all printed Englishlanguage words. It is derived from gendered articles in Old English which combined in Middle English and now has a single form used with nouns of any gender. The word can be used with both singular and plural nouns, and with a noun that starts with any letter. This is different from many other languages, which have different forms of the definite article for different genders or numbers. Pronunciation In most dialects, "the" is pronounced as (with the voiced dental fricative followed by a schwa) when followed by a consonant sound, and as (homophone of the archaic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Measurement Error
Observational error (or measurement error) is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value.Dodge, Y. (2003) ''The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms'', OUP. In statistics, an error is not necessarily a " mistake". Variability is an inherent part of the results of measurements and of the measurement process. Measurement errors can be divided into two components: ''random'' and ''systematic''. Random errors are errors in measurement that lead to measurable values being inconsistent when repeated measurements of a constant attribute or quantity are taken. Systematic errors are errors that are not determined by chance but are introduced by repeatable processes inherent to the system. Systematic error may also refer to an error with a nonzero mean, the effect of which is not reduced when observations are averaged. Measurement errors can be summarized in terms of accuracy and precision. Measurement error should not be confused with measurement uncer ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Correlation
In statistics, correlation or dependence is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data. Although in the broadest sense, "correlation" may indicate any type of association, in statistics it usually refers to the degree to which a pair of variables are ''linearly'' related. Familiar examples of dependent phenomena include the correlation between the height of parents and their offspring, and the correlation between the price of a good and the quantity the consumers are willing to purchase, as it is depicted in the socalled demand curve. Correlations are useful because they can indicate a predictive relationship that can be exploited in practice. For example, an electrical utility may produce less power on a mild day based on the correlation between electricity demand and weather. In this example, there is a causal relationship, because extreme weather causes people to use more electricity for heating or cooling. However ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Charles Spearman
Charles Edward Spearman, FRS (10 September 1863 – 17 September 1945) was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. He also did seminal work on models for human intelligence, including his theory that disparate cognitive test scores reflect a single General intelligence factor and coining the term ''g'' factor. Biography Spearman had an unusual background for a psychologist. In his childhood he was ambitious to follow an academic career. He first joined the army as a regular officer of engineers in August 1883, and was promoted to captain on 8 July 1893, serving in the Munster Fusiliers. After 15 years he resigned in 1897 to study for a PhD in experimental psychology. In Britain, psychology was generally seen as a branch of philosophy and Spearman chose to study in Leipzig under Wilhelm Wundt, because it was a center of the "new psychology"—one that used the scientific method inst ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 