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Quotient Space (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra, the quotient of a vector space ''V'' by a subspace ''N'' is a vector space obtained by "collapsing" ''N'' to zero. The space obtained is called a quotient space and is denoted ''V''/''N'' (read "''V'' mod ''N''" or "''V'' by ''N''"). Definition Formally, the construction is as follows. Let ''V'' be a vector space over a field ''K'', and let ''N'' be a subspace of ''V''. We define an equivalence relation ~ on ''V'' by stating that ''x'' ~ ''y'' if . That is, ''x'' is related to ''y'' if one can be obtained from the other by adding an element of ''N''. From this definition, one can deduce that any element of ''N'' is related to the zero vector; more precisely, all the vectors in ''N'' get mapped into the equivalence class of the zero vector. The equivalence class – or, in this case, the coset – of ''x'' is often denoted : 'x''= ''x'' + ''N'' since it is given by : 'x''= . The quotient space ''V''/''N'' is then defined as ''V''/~, the set of all equival ...
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Linear Algebra
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as: :a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n=b, linear maps such as: :(x_1, \ldots, x_n) \mapsto a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n, and their representations in vector spaces and through matrices. Linear algebra is central to almost all areas of mathematics. For instance, linear algebra is fundamental in modern presentations of geometry, including for defining basic objects such as lines, planes and rotations. Also, functional analysis, a branch of mathematical analysis, may be viewed as the application of linear algebra to spaces of functions. Linear algebra is also used in most sciences and fields of engineering, because it allows modeling many natural phenomena, and computing efficiently with such models. For nonlinear systems, which cannot be modeled with linear algebra, it is often used for dealing with first-order approximations, using the fact that the differential of a multivariate function at a point is the linea ...
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Isomorphic
In mathematics, an isomorphism is a structure-preserving mapping between two structures of the same type that can be reversed by an inverse mapping. Two mathematical structures are isomorphic if an isomorphism exists between them. The word isomorphism is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος ''isos'' "equal", and μορφή ''morphe'' "form" or "shape". The interest in isomorphisms lies in the fact that two isomorphic objects have the same properties (excluding further information such as additional structure or names of objects). Thus isomorphic structures cannot be distinguished from the point of view of structure only, and may be identified. In mathematical jargon, one says that two objects are . An automorphism is an isomorphism from a structure to itself. An isomorphism between two structures is a canonical isomorphism (a canonical map that is an isomorphism) if there is only one isomorphism between the two structures (as it is the case for solutions of a uni ...
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Corollary
In mathematics and logic, a corollary ( , ) is a theorem of less importance which can be readily deduced from a previous, more notable statement. A corollary could, for instance, be a proposition which is incidentally proved while proving another proposition; it might also be used more casually to refer to something which naturally or incidentally accompanies something else (e.g., violence as a corollary of revolutionary social changes). Overview In mathematics, a corollary is a theorem connected by a short proof to an existing theorem. The use of the term ''corollary'', rather than ''proposition'' or ''theorem'', is intrinsically subjective. More formally, proposition ''B'' is a corollary of proposition ''A'', if ''B'' can be readily deduced from ''A'' or is self-evident from its proof. In many cases, a corollary corresponds to a special case of a larger theorem, which makes the theorem easier to use and apply, even though its importance is generally considered to be secondary t ...
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Image (mathematics)
In mathematics, the image of a function is the set of all output values it may produce. More generally, evaluating a given function f at each element of a given subset A of its domain produces a set, called the "image of A under (or through) f". Similarly, the inverse image (or preimage) of a given subset B of the codomain of f, is the set of all elements of the domain that map to the members of B. Image and inverse image may also be defined for general binary relations, not just functions. Definition The word "image" is used in three related ways. In these definitions, f : X \to Y is a function from the set X to the set Y. Image of an element If x is a member of X, then the image of x under f, denoted f(x), is the value of f when applied to x. f(x) is alternatively known as the output of f for argument x. Given y, the function f is said to "" or "" if there exists some x in the function's domain such that f(x) = y. Similarly, given a set S, f is said to "" if there ...
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First Isomorphism Theorem
In mathematics, specifically abstract algebra, the isomorphism theorems (also known as Noether's isomorphism theorems) are theorems that describe the relationship between quotients, homomorphisms, and subobjects. Versions of the theorems exist for groups, rings, vector spaces, modules, Lie algebras, and various other algebraic structures. In universal algebra, the isomorphism theorems can be generalized to the context of algebras and congruences. History The isomorphism theorems were formulated in some generality for homomorphisms of modules by Emmy Noether in her paper ''Abstrakter Aufbau der Idealtheorie in algebraischen Zahl- und Funktionenkörpern'', which was published in 1927 in Mathematische Annalen. Less general versions of these theorems can be found in work of Richard Dedekind and previous papers by Noether. Three years later, B.L. van der Waerden published his influential ''Moderne Algebra'' the first abstract algebra textbook that took the groups- rings- fields ...
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Linear Operator
In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation, vector space homomorphism, or in some contexts linear function) is a Map (mathematics), mapping V \to W between two vector spaces that preserves the operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication. The same names and the same definition are also used for the more general case of module (mathematics), modules over a ring (mathematics), ring; see Module homomorphism. If a linear map is a bijection then it is called a . In the case where V = W, a linear map is called a (linear) ''endomorphism''. Sometimes the term refers to this case, but the term "linear operator" can have different meanings for different conventions: for example, it can be used to emphasize that V and W are Real number, real vector spaces (not necessarily with V = W), or it can be used to emphasize that V is a function space, which is a common convention in functional analysis. Some ...
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Basis (linear Algebra)
In mathematics, a set of vectors in a vector space is called a basis if every element of may be written in a unique way as a finite linear combination of elements of . The coefficients of this linear combination are referred to as components or coordinates of the vector with respect to . The elements of a basis are called . Equivalently, a set is a basis if its elements are linearly independent and every element of is a linear combination of elements of . In other words, a basis is a linearly independent spanning set. A vector space can have several bases; however all the bases have the same number of elements, called the ''dimension'' of the vector space. This article deals mainly with finite-dimensional vector spaces. However, many of the principles are also valid for infinite-dimensional vector spaces. Definition A basis of a vector space over a field (such as the real numbers or the complex numbers ) is a linearly independent subset of that spans . Th ...
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Codimension
In mathematics, codimension is a basic geometric idea that applies to subspaces in vector spaces, to submanifolds in manifolds, and suitable subsets of algebraic varieties. For affine and projective algebraic varieties, the codimension equals the height of the defining ideal. For this reason, the height of an ideal is often called its codimension. The dual concept is relative dimension. Definition Codimension is a ''relative'' concept: it is only defined for one object ''inside'' another. There is no “codimension of a vector space (in isolation)”, only the codimension of a vector ''sub''space. If ''W'' is a linear subspace of a finite-dimensional vector space ''V'', then the codimension of ''W'' in ''V'' is the difference between the dimensions: :\operatorname(W) = \dim(V) - \dim(W). It is the complement of the dimension of ''W,'' in that, with the dimension of ''W,'' it adds up to the dimension of the ambient space ''V:'' :\dim(W) + \operatorname(W) = \dim(V). Simila ...
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Dimension (vector Space)
In mathematics, the dimension of a vector space ''V'' is the cardinality (i.e., the number of vectors) of a basis of ''V'' over its base field. p. 44, §2.36 It is sometimes called Hamel dimension (after Georg Hamel) or algebraic dimension to distinguish it from other types of dimension. For every vector space there exists a basis, and all bases of a vector space have equal cardinality; as a result, the dimension of a vector space is uniquely defined. We say V is if the dimension of V is finite, and if its dimension is infinite. The dimension of the vector space V over the field F can be written as \dim_F(V) or as : F read "dimension of V over F". When F can be inferred from context, \dim(V) is typically written. Examples The vector space \R^3 has \left\ as a standard basis, and therefore \dim_(\R^3) = 3. More generally, \dim_(\R^n) = n, and even more generally, \dim_(F^n) = n for any field F. The complex numbers \Complex are both a real and complex vector space; we ...
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Short Exact Sequence
An exact sequence is a sequence of morphisms between objects (for example, groups, rings, modules, and, more generally, objects of an abelian category) such that the image of one morphism equals the kernel of the next. Definition In the context of group theory, a sequence :G_0\;\xrightarrow\; G_1 \;\xrightarrow\; G_2 \;\xrightarrow\; \cdots \;\xrightarrow\; G_n of groups and group homomorphisms is said to be exact at G_i if \operatorname(f_i)=\ker(f_). The sequence is called exact if it is exact at each G_i for all 1\leq i, i.e., if the image of each homomorphism is equal to the kernel of the next. The sequence of groups and homomorphisms may be either finite or infinite. A similar definition can be made for other s. For example, one could have an exact sequence of

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Kernel (linear Algebra)
In mathematics, the kernel of a linear map, also known as the null space or nullspace, is the linear subspace of the domain of the map which is mapped to the zero vector. That is, given a linear map between two vector spaces and , the kernel of is the vector space of all elements of such that , where denotes the zero vector in , or more symbolically: :\ker(L) = \left\ . Properties The kernel of is a linear subspace of the domain .Linear algebra, as discussed in this article, is a very well established mathematical discipline for which there are many sources. Almost all of the material in this article can be found in , , and Strang's lectures. In the linear map L : V \to W, two elements of have the same image in if and only if their difference lies in the kernel of , that is, L\left(\mathbf_1\right) = L\left(\mathbf_2\right) \quad \text \quad L\left(\mathbf_1-\mathbf_2\right) = \mathbf. From this, it follows that the image of is isomorphic to the quotient of by t ...
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Epimorphism
In category theory, an epimorphism (also called an epic morphism or, colloquially, an epi) is a morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' that is right-cancellative in the sense that, for all objects ''Z'' and all morphisms , : g_1 \circ f = g_2 \circ f \implies g_1 = g_2. Epimorphisms are categorical analogues of onto or surjective functions (and in the category of sets the concept corresponds exactly to the surjective functions), but they may not exactly coincide in all contexts; for example, the inclusion \mathbb\to\mathbb is a ring epimorphism. The dual of an epimorphism is a monomorphism (i.e. an epimorphism in a category ''C'' is a monomorphism in the dual category ''C''op). Many authors in abstract algebra and universal algebra define an epimorphism simply as an ''onto'' or surjective homomorphism. Every epimorphism in this algebraic sense is an epimorphism in the sense of category theory, but the converse is not true in all categories. In this article, the term "epimorphism ...
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