Quotient Ring
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a quotient ring, also known as factor ring, difference ring or residue class ring, is a construction quite similar to the quotient group in group theory and to the quotient space in linear algebra. It is a specific example of a quotient, as viewed from the general setting of universal algebra. Starting with a ring and a twosided ideal in , a new ring, the quotient ring , is constructed, whose elements are the cosets of in subject to special and operations. (Only the fraction slash "/" is used in quotient ring notation, not a horizontal fraction bar.) Quotient rings are distinct from the socalled "quotient field", or field of fractions, of an integral domain as well as from the more general "rings of quotients" obtained by localization. Formal quotient ring construction Given a ring and a twosided ideal in , we may define an equivalence relation on as follows: : if and only if is in . Using the ideal properties, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ring Theory
In algebra, ring theory is the study of rings—algebraic structures in which addition and multiplication are defined and have similar properties to those operations defined for the integers. Ring theory studies the structure of rings, their representations, or, in different language, modules, special classes of rings (group rings, division rings, universal enveloping algebras), as well as an array of properties that proved to be of interest both within the theory itself and for its applications, such as homological properties and polynomial identities. Commutative rings are much better understood than noncommutative ones. Algebraic geometry and algebraic number theory, which provide many natural examples of commutative rings, have driven much of the development of commutative ring theory, which is now, under the name of ''commutative algebra'', a major area of modern mathematics. Because these three fields (algebraic geometry, algebraic number theory and commutative algebra) ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integral Domain
In mathematics, specifically abstract algebra, an integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which the product of any two nonzero elements is nonzero. Integral domains are generalizations of the ring of integers and provide a natural setting for studying divisibility. In an integral domain, every nonzero element ''a'' has the cancellation property, that is, if , an equality implies . "Integral domain" is defined almost universally as above, but there is some variation. This article follows the convention that rings have a multiplicative identity, generally denoted 1, but some authors do not follow this, by not requiring integral domains to have a multiplicative identity. Noncommutative integral domains are sometimes admitted. This article, however, follows the much more usual convention of reserving the term "integral domain" for the commutative case and using "domain" for the general case including noncommutative rings. Some sources, notably Lang, use the term ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zero Ring
In ring theory, a branch of mathematics, the zero ring or trivial ring is the unique ring (up to isomorphism) consisting of one element. (Less commonly, the term "zero ring" is used to refer to any rng of square zero, i.e., a rng in which for all ''x'' and ''y''. This article refers to the oneelement ring.) In the category of rings, the zero ring is the terminal object, whereas the ring of integers Z is the initial object. Definition The zero ring, denoted or simply 0, consists of the oneelement set with the operations + and · defined such that 0 + 0 = 0 and 0 · 0 = 0. Properties * The zero ring is the unique ring in which the additive identity 0 and multiplicative identity 1 coincide. (Proof: If in a ring ''R'', then for all ''r'' in ''R'', we have . The proof of the last equality is found here.) * The zero ring is commutative. * The element 0 in the zero ring is a unit, serving as its own multiplicative inverse. * The unit group of the zero ring is the t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Naturally Isomorphic
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a natural transformation provides a way of transforming one functor into another while respecting the internal structure (i.e., the composition of morphisms) of the categories involved. Hence, a natural transformation can be considered to be a "morphism of functors". Informally, the notion of a natural transformation states that a particular map between functors can be done consistently over an entire category. Indeed, this intuition can be formalized to define socalled functor categories. Natural transformations are, after categories and functors, one of the most fundamental notions of category theory and consequently appear in the majority of its applications. Definition If F and G are functors between the categories C and D , then a natural transformation \eta from F to G is a family of morphisms that satisfies two requirements. # The natural transformation must associate, to every object X in C, a morphism \eta_X : ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Canonical Homomorphism
In mathematics, a canonical map, also called a natural map, is a map or morphism between objects that arises naturally from the definition or the construction of the objects. Often, it is a map which preserves the widest amount of structure. A choice of a canonical map sometimes depends on a convention (e.g., a sign convention). A closely related notion is a structure map or structure morphism; the map or morphism that comes with the given structure on the object. These are also sometimes called canonical maps. A canonical isomorphism is a canonical map that is also an isomorphism (i.e., invertible). In some contexts, it might be necessary to address an issue of ''choices'' of canonical maps or canonical isomorphisms; for a typical example, see prestack. For a discussion of the problem of defining a canonical map see Kevin Buzzard's talk at the 2022 Grothendieck conference. Examples *If ''N'' is a normal subgroup of a group ''G'', then there is a canonical surjective group ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ring Homomorphism
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a ring homomorphism is a structurepreserving function between two rings. More explicitly, if ''R'' and ''S'' are rings, then a ring homomorphism is a function such that ''f'' is: :addition preserving: ::f(a+b)=f(a)+f(b) for all ''a'' and ''b'' in ''R'', :multiplication preserving: ::f(ab)=f(a)f(b) for all ''a'' and ''b'' in ''R'', :and unit (multiplicative identity) preserving: ::f(1_R)=1_S. Additive inverses and the additive identity are part of the structure too, but it is not necessary to require explicitly that they too are respected, because these conditions are consequences of the three conditions above. If in addition ''f'' is a bijection, then its inverse ''f''−1 is also a ring homomorphism. In this case, ''f'' is called a ring isomorphism, and the rings ''R'' and ''S'' are called ''isomorphic''. From the standpoint of ring theory, isomorphic rings cannot be distinguished. If ''R'' and ''S'' are rngs, then the cor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Surjective
In mathematics, a surjective function (also known as surjection, or onto function) is a function that every element can be mapped from element so that . In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. It is not required that be unique; the function may map one or more elements of to the same element of . The term ''surjective'' and the related terms '' injective'' and '' bijective'' were introduced by Nicolas Bourbaki, a group of mainly French 20thcentury mathematicians who, under this pseudonym, wrote a series of books presenting an exposition of modern advanced mathematics, beginning in 1935. The French word '' sur'' means ''over'' or ''above'', and relates to the fact that the image of the domain of a surjective function completely covers the function's codomain. Any function induces a surjection by restricting its codomain to the image of its domain. Every surjective function has a right inverse assuming the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coset
In mathematics, specifically group theory, a subgroup of a group may be used to decompose the underlying set of into disjoint, equalsize subsets called cosets. There are ''left cosets'' and ''right cosets''. Cosets (both left and right) have the same number of elements (cardinality) as does . Furthermore, itself is both a left coset and a right coset. The number of left cosets of in is equal to the number of right cosets of in . This common value is called the index of in and is usually denoted by . Cosets are a basic tool in the study of groups; for example, they play a central role in Lagrange's theorem that states that for any finite group , the number of elements of every subgroup of divides the number of elements of . Cosets of a particular type of subgroup (a normal subgroup) can be used as the elements of another group called a quotient group or factor group. Cosets also appear in other areas of mathematics such as vector spaces and errorcorrecting codes ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Welldefined
In mathematics, a welldefined expression or unambiguous expression is an expression whose definition assigns it a unique interpretation or value. Otherwise, the expression is said to be ''not well defined'', ill defined or ''ambiguous''. A function is well defined if it gives the same result when the representation of the input is changed without changing the value of the input. For instance, if ''f'' takes real numbers as input, and if ''f''(0.5) does not equal ''f''(1/2) then ''f'' is not well defined (and thus not a function). The term ''well defined'' can also be used to indicate that a logical expression is unambiguous or uncontradictory. A function that is not well defined is not the same as a function that is undefined. For example, if ''f''(''x'') = 1/''x'', then the fact that ''f''(0) is undefined does not mean that the ''f'' is ''not'' well defined – but that 0 is simply not in the domain of ''f''. Example Let A_0,A_1 be sets, let A = A_0 \cup A_1 and "define" f: A ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equivalence Class
In mathematics, when the elements of some set S have a notion of equivalence (formalized as an equivalence relation), then one may naturally split the set S into equivalence classes. These equivalence classes are constructed so that elements a and b belong to the same equivalence class if, and only if, they are equivalent. Formally, given a set S and an equivalence relation \,\sim\, on S, the of an element a in S, denoted by is the set \ of elements which are equivalent to a. It may be proven, from the defining properties of equivalence relations, that the equivalence classes form a partition of S. This partition—the set of equivalence classes—is sometimes called the quotient set or the quotient space of S by \,\sim\,, and is denoted by S / \sim. When the set S has some structure (such as a group operation or a topology) and the equivalence relation \,\sim\, is compatible with this structure, the quotient set often inherits a similar structure from its parent set. Exa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ideal (ring Theory)
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, an ideal of a ring is a special subset of its elements. Ideals generalize certain subsets of the integers, such as the even numbers or the multiples of 3. Addition and subtraction of even numbers preserves evenness, and multiplying an even number by any integer (even or odd) results in an even number; these closure and absorption properties are the defining properties of an ideal. An ideal can be used to construct a quotient ring in a way similar to how, in group theory, a normal subgroup can be used to construct a quotient group. Among the integers, the ideals correspond oneforone with the nonnegative integers: in this ring, every ideal is a principal ideal consisting of the multiples of a single nonnegative number. However, in other rings, the ideals may not correspond directly to the ring elements, and certain properties of integers, when generalized to rings, attach more naturally to the ideals than to the elements of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Congruence Relation
In abstract algebra, a congruence relation (or simply congruence) is an equivalence relation on an algebraic structure (such as a group, ring, or vector space) that is compatible with the structure in the sense that algebraic operations done with equivalent elements will yield equivalent elements. Every congruence relation has a corresponding quotient structure, whose elements are the equivalence classes (or congruence classes) for the relation. Basic example The prototypical example of a congruence relation is congruence modulo n on the set of integers. For a given positive integer n, two integers a and b are called congruent modulo n, written : a \equiv b \pmod if a  b is divisible by n (or equivalently if a and b have the same remainder when divided by n). For example, 37 and 57 are congruent modulo 10, : 37 \equiv 57 \pmod since 37  57 = 20 is a multiple of 10, or equivalently since both 37 and 57 have a remainder of 7 when divided by 10. Congruence modulo n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 