Quotient Graph
In graph theory, a quotient graph ''Q'' of a graph ''G'' is a graph whose vertices are blocks of a partition of the vertices of ''G'' and where block ''B'' is adjacent to block ''C'' if some vertex in ''B'' is adjacent to some vertex in ''C'' with respect to the edge set of ''G''. In other words, if ''G'' has edge set ''E'' and vertex set ''V'' and ''R'' is the equivalence relation induced by the partition, then the quotient graph has vertex set ''V''/''R'' and edge set . More formally, a quotient graph is a quotient object in the category of graphs. The category of graphs is concretizable – mapping a graph to its set of vertices makes it a concrete category – so its objects can be regarded as "sets with additional structure", and a quotient graph corresponds to the graph induced on the quotient set ''V''/''R'' of its vertex set ''V''. Further, there is a graph homomorphism (a quotient map) from a graph to a quotient graph, sending each vertex or edge to the equivalence class ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Graph Theory
In mathematics, graph theory is the study of ''graphs'', which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects. A graph in this context is made up of '' vertices'' (also called ''nodes'' or ''points'') which are connected by '' edges'' (also called ''links'' or ''lines''). A distinction is made between undirected graphs, where edges link two vertices symmetrically, and directed graphs, where edges link two vertices asymmetrically. Graphs are one of the principal objects of study in discrete mathematics. Definitions Definitions in graph theory vary. The following are some of the more basic ways of defining graphs and related mathematical structures. Graph In one restricted but very common sense of the term, a graph is an ordered pair G=(V,E) comprising: * V, a set of vertices (also called nodes or points); * E \subseteq \, a set of edges (also called links or lines), which are unordered pairs of vertices (that is, an edge is associated wi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Graph Condensation
Graph may refer to: Mathematics *Graph (discrete mathematics), a structure made of vertices and edges **Graph theory, the study of such graphs and their properties *Graph (topology), a topological space resembling a graph in the sense of discrete mathematics *Graph of a function *Graph of a relation *Graph paper *Chart, a means of representing data (also called a graph) Computing *Graph (abstract data type), an abstract data type representing relations or connections *graph (Unix), Unix commandline utility *Conceptual graph, a model for knowledge representation and reasoning Other uses * HMS ''Graph'', a submarine of the UK Royal Navy See also *Complex network *Graf *Graff (other) *Graph database *Grapheme, in linguistics *Graphemics *Graphic (other) *graphy (suffix from the Greek for "describe," "write" or "draw") *List of information graphics software *Statistical graphics Statistical graphics, also known as statistical graphical techniques, are graphi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Discrete Applied Mathematics
''Discrete Applied Mathematics'' is a peerreviewed scientific journal covering algorithmic and applied areas of discrete mathematics. It is published by Elsevier and the editorinchief is Endre Boros (Rutgers University). The journal was split off from another Elsevier journal, ''Discrete Mathematics'', in 1979, with that journal's founder Peter Ladislaw Hammer as its founding editorinchief. Abstracting and indexing The journal is abstracted and indexing in: According to the ''Journal Citation Reports'', the journal has a 2020 impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly mean number of citations of articles published in the last two years in a given journal, as ... of 1.139. References External links *{{official website, http://www.journals.elsevier.com/discreteappliedmathematics/ Combinatorics journals Publications established in 1979 Eng ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Planar Graph
In graph theory, a planar graph is a graph that can be embedded in the plane, i.e., it can be drawn on the plane in such a way that its edges intersect only at their endpoints. In other words, it can be drawn in such a way that no edges cross each other. Such a drawing is called a plane graph or planar embedding of the graph. A plane graph can be defined as a planar graph with a mapping from every node to a point on a plane, and from every edge to a plane curve on that plane, such that the extreme points of each curve are the points mapped from its end nodes, and all curves are disjoint except on their extreme points. Every graph that can be drawn on a plane can be drawn on the sphere as well, and vice versa, by means of stereographic projection. Plane graphs can be encoded by combinatorial maps or rotation systems. An equivalence class of topologically equivalent drawings on the sphere, usually with additional assumptions such as the absence of isthmuses, is called a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cubic Graph
In the mathematical field of graph theory, a cubic graph is a graph in which all vertices have degree three. In other words, a cubic graph is a 3regular graph. Cubic graphs are also called trivalent graphs. A bicubic graph is a cubic bipartite graph. Symmetry In 1932, Ronald M. Foster began collecting examples of cubic symmetric graphs, forming the start of the Foster census.. Many wellknown individual graphs are cubic and symmetric, including the utility graph, the Petersen graph, the Heawood graph, the Möbius–Kantor graph, the Pappus graph, the Desargues graph, the Nauru graph, the Coxeter graph, the Tutte–Coxeter graph, the Dyck graph, the Foster graph and the Biggs–Smith graph. W. T. Tutte classified the symmetric cubic graphs by the smallest integer number ''s'' such that each two oriented paths of length ''s'' can be mapped to each other by exactly one symmetry of the graph. He showed that ''s'' is at most 5, and provided examples of graphs with ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

NPcomplete
In computational complexity theory, a problem is NPcomplete when: # it is a problem for which the correctness of each solution can be verified quickly (namely, in polynomial time) and a bruteforce search algorithm can find a solution by trying all possible solutions. # the problem can be used to simulate every other problem for which we can verify quickly that a solution is correct. In this sense, NPcomplete problems are the hardest of the problems to which solutions can be verified quickly. If we could find solutions of some NPcomplete problem quickly, we could quickly find the solutions of every other problem to which a given solution can be easily verified. The name "NPcomplete" is short for "nondeterministic polynomialtime complete". In this name, "nondeterministic" refers to nondeterministic Turing machines, a way of mathematically formalizing the idea of a bruteforce search algorithm. Polynomial time refers to an amount of time that is considered "quick" for a dete ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Covering Graph
In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, a graph is a covering graph of another graph if there is a covering map from the vertex set of to the vertex set of . A covering map is a surjection and a local isomorphism: the neighbourhood of a vertex in is mapped bijectively onto the neighbourhood of in . The term lift is often used as a synonym for a covering graph of a connected graph. Though it may be misleading, there is no (obvious) relationship between covering graph and vertex cover or edge cover. The combinatorial formulation of covering graphs is immediately generalized to the case of multigraphs. In the case of a multigraph with a 1dimensional cell complex, a covering graph is nothing but a special example of covering spaces of topological spaces, so the terminology in the theory of covering spaces is available; say covering transformation group, universal covering, abelian covering, and maximal abelian covering. Definition Let ''G'' = (''V''1, ''E''1) and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Connected Component (graph Theory)
In graph theory, a component of an undirected graph is a connected subgraph that is not part of any larger connected subgraph. The components of any graph partition its vertices into disjoint sets, and are the induced subgraphs of those sets. A graph that is itself connected has exactly one component, consisting of the whole graph. Components are sometimes called connected components. The number of components in a given graph is an important graph invariant, and is closely related to invariants of matroids, topological spaces, and matrices. In random graphs, a frequently occurring phenomenon is the incidence of a giant component, one component that is significantly larger than the others; and of a percolation threshold, an edge probability above which a giant component exists and below which it does not. The components of a graph can be constructed in linear time, and a special case of the problem, connectedcomponent labeling, is a basic technique in image analysis. Dynamic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Directed Acyclic Graph
In mathematics, particularly graph theory, and computer science, a directed acyclic graph (DAG) is a directed graph with no directed cycles. That is, it consists of vertices and edges (also called ''arcs''), with each edge directed from one vertex to another, such that following those directions will never form a closed loop. A directed graph is a DAG if and only if it can be topologically ordered, by arranging the vertices as a linear ordering that is consistent with all edge directions. DAGs have numerous scientific and computational applications, ranging from biology (evolution, family trees, epidemiology) to information science (citation networks) to computation (scheduling). Directed acyclic graphs are sometimes instead called acyclic directed graphs or acyclic digraphs. Definitions A graph is formed by vertices and by edges connecting pairs of vertices, where the vertices can be any kind of object that is connected in pairs by edges. In the case of a directed graph ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Strongly Connected Component
In the mathematical theory of directed graphs, a graph is said to be strongly connected if every vertex is reachable from every other vertex. The strongly connected components of an arbitrary directed graph form a partition into subgraphs that are themselves strongly connected. It is possible to test the strong connectivity of a graph, or to find its strongly connected components, in linear time (that is, Θ(''V'' + ''E'')). Definitions A directed graph is called strongly connected if there is a path in each direction between each pair of vertices of the graph. That is, a path exists from the first vertex in the pair to the second, and another path exists from the second vertex to the first. In a directed graph ''G'' that may not itself be strongly connected, a pair of vertices ''u'' and ''v'' are said to be strongly connected to each other if there is a path in each direction between them. The binary relation of being strongly connected is an equivalence relation ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Condensation (graph Theory)
In the mathematical theory of directed graphs, a graph is said to be strongly connected if every vertex is reachable from every other vertex. The strongly connected components of an arbitrary directed graph form a partition into subgraphs that are themselves strongly connected. It is possible to test the strong connectivity of a graph, or to find its strongly connected components, in linear time (that is, Θ(''V'' + ''E'')). Definitions A directed graph is called strongly connected if there is a path in each direction between each pair of vertices of the graph. That is, a path exists from the first vertex in the pair to the second, and another path exists from the second vertex to the first. In a directed graph ''G'' that may not itself be strongly connected, a pair of vertices ''u'' and ''v'' are said to be strongly connected to each other if there is a path in each direction between them. The binary relation of being strongly connected is an equivalence relation, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Edge Contraction
In graph theory, an edge contraction is an operation that removes an edge from a graph while simultaneously merging the two vertices that it previously joined. Edge contraction is a fundamental operation in the theory of graph minors. Vertex identification is a less restrictive form of this operation. Definition The edge contraction operation occurs relative to a particular edge, e. The edge e is removed and its two incident vertices, u and v, are merged into a new vertex w, where the edges incident to w each correspond to an edge incident to either u or v. More generally, the operation may be performed on a set of edges by contracting each edge (in any order). The resulting induced graph is sometimes written as G/e. (Contrast this with G \setminus e, which means removing the edge e.) As defined below, an edge contraction operation may result in a graph with multiple edges even if the original graph was a simple graph. However, some authors disallow the creation of multip ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 