Polynomial
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of indeterminates (also called variables) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and positiveinteger powers of variables. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate is . An example with three indeterminates is . Polynomials appear in many areas of mathematics and science. For example, they are used to form polynomial equations, which encode a wide range of problems, from elementary word problems to complicated scientific problems; they are used to define polynomial functions, which appear in settings ranging from basic chemistry and physics to economics and social science; they are used in calculus and numerical analysis to approximate other functions. In advanced mathematics, polynomials are used to construct polynomial rings and algebraic varieties, which are central concepts in algebra and algebraic geometry. Etymology The word ''polynomial'' joins ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polynomial Ring
In mathematics, especially in the field of algebra, a polynomial ring or polynomial algebra is a ring (which is also a commutative algebra) formed from the set of polynomials in one or more indeterminates (traditionally also called variables) with coefficients in another ring, often a field. Often, the term "polynomial ring" refers implicitly to the special case of a polynomial ring in one indeterminate over a field. The importance of such polynomial rings relies on the high number of properties that they have in common with the ring of the integers. Polynomial rings occur and are often fundamental in many parts of mathematics such as number theory, commutative algebra, and algebraic geometry. In ring theory, many classes of rings, such as unique factorization domains, regular rings, group rings, rings of formal power series, Ore polynomials, graded rings, have been introduced for generalizing some properties of polynomial rings. A closely related notion is tha ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebraic Geometry
Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials. Modern algebraic geometry is based on the use of abstract algebraic techniques, mainly from commutative algebra, for solving geometrical problems about these sets of zeros. The fundamental objects of study in algebraic geometry are algebraic varieties, which are geometric manifestations of solutions of systems of polynomial equations. Examples of the most studied classes of algebraic varieties are: plane algebraic curves, which include lines, circles, parabolas, ellipses, hyperbolas, cubic curves like elliptic curves, and quartic curves like lemniscates and Cassini ovals. A point of the plane belongs to an algebraic curve if its coordinates satisfy a given polynomial equation. Basic questions involve the study of the points of special interest like the singular points, the inflection points and the points at infinity. More advanced questions involve the topology ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polynomial Equation
In mathematics, an algebraic equation or polynomial equation is an equation of the form :P = 0 where ''P'' is a polynomial with coefficients in some field (mathematics), field, often the field of the rational numbers. For many authors, the term ''algebraic equation'' refers only to ''univariate equations'', that is polynomial equations that involve only one variable (mathematics), variable. On the other hand, a polynomial equation may involve several variables. In the case of several variables (the ''multivariate'' case), the term ''polynomial equation'' is usually preferred to ''algebraic equation''. For example, :x^53x+1=0 is an algebraic equation with integer coefficients and :y^4 + \frac  \frac + xy^2 + y^2 + \frac = 0 is a multivariate polynomial equation over the rationals. Some but not all polynomial equations with Rational number, rational coefficients have a solution that is an algebraic expression that can be found using a finite number of operations that involve only ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ring (mathematics)
In mathematics, rings are algebraic structures that generalize fields: multiplication need not be commutative and multiplicative inverses need not exist. In other words, a ''ring'' is a set equipped with two binary operations satisfying properties analogous to those of addition and multiplication of integers. Ring elements may be numbers such as integers or complex numbers, but they may also be nonnumerical objects such as polynomials, square matrices, functions, and power series. Formally, a ''ring'' is an abelian group whose operation is called ''addition'', with a second binary operation called ''multiplication'' that is associative, is distributive over the addition operation, and has a multiplicative identity element. (Some authors use the term " " with a missing i to refer to the more general structure that omits this last requirement; see .) Whether a ring is commutative (that is, whether the order in which two elements are multiplied might change the result ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebra
Algebra () is one of the broad areas of mathematics. Roughly speaking, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols in formulas; it is a unifying thread of almost all of mathematics. Elementary algebra deals with the manipulation of variables (commonly represented by Roman letters) as if they were numbers and is therefore essential in all applications of mathematics. Abstract algebra is the name given, mostly in education, to the study of algebraic structures such as groups, rings, and fields (the term is no more in common use outside educational context). Linear algebra, which deals with linear equations and linear mappings, is used for modern presentations of geometry, and has many practical applications (in weather forecasting, for example). There are many areas of mathematics that belong to algebra, some having "algebra" in their name, such as commutative algebra, and some not, such as Galois theory. The word ''algebr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebraic Variety
Algebraic varieties are the central objects of study in algebraic geometry, a subfield of mathematics. Classically, an algebraic variety is defined as the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations over the real or complex numbers. Modern definitions generalize this concept in several different ways, while attempting to preserve the geometric intuition behind the original definition. Conventions regarding the definition of an algebraic variety differ slightly. For example, some definitions require an algebraic variety to be irreducible, which means that it is not the union of two smaller sets that are closed in the Zariski topology. Under this definition, nonirreducible algebraic varieties are called algebraic sets. Other conventions do not require irreducibility. The fundamental theorem of algebra establishes a link between algebra and geometry by showing that a monic polynomial (an algebraic object) in one variable with complex number coefficients is dete ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Monomial
In mathematics, a monomial is, roughly speaking, a polynomial which has only one term. Two definitions of a monomial may be encountered: # A monomial, also called power product, is a product of powers of variables with nonnegative integer exponents, or, in other words, a product of variables, possibly with repetitions. For example, x^2yz^3=xxyzzz is a monomial. The constant 1 is a monomial, being equal to the empty product and to x^0 for any variable x. If only a single variable x is considered, this means that a monomial is either 1 or a power x^n of x, with n a positive integer. If several variables are considered, say, x, y, z, then each can be given an exponent, so that any monomial is of the form x^a y^b z^c with a,b,c nonnegative integers (taking note that any exponent 0 makes the corresponding factor equal to 1). # A monomial is a monomial in the first sense multiplied by a nonzero constant, called the coefficient of the monomial. A monomial in the first sense is a spec ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Indeterminate (variable)
In mathematics, particularly in formal algebra, an indeterminate is a symbol that is treated as a variable, but does not stand for anything else except itself. It may be used as a placeholder in objects such as polynomials and formal power series. In particular: * It does not designate a constant or a parameter of the problem. * It is not an unknown that could be solved for. * It is not a variable designating a function argument, or a variable being summed or integrated over. * It is not any type of bound variable. * It is just a symbol used in an entirely formal way. When used as placeholders, a common operation is to substitute mathematical expressions (of an appropriate type) for the indeterminates. By a common abuse of language, mathematical texts may not clearly distinguish indeterminates from ordinary variables. Polynomials A polynomial in an indeterminate X is an expression of the form a_0 + a_1X + a_2X^2 + \ldots + a_nX^n, where the ''a_i'' are called the co ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coefficient
In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series, or an expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression (including variables such as , and ). When the coefficients are themselves variables, they may also be called parameters. For example, the polynomial 2x^2x+3 has coefficients 2, âˆ’1, and 3, and the powers of the variable x in the polynomial ax^2+bx+c have coefficient parameters a, b, and c. The constant coefficient is the coefficient not attached to variables in an expression. For example, the constant coefficients of the expressions above are the number 3 and the parameter ''c'', respectively. The coefficient attached to the highest degree of the variable in a polynomial is referred to as the leading coefficient. For example, in the expressions above, the leading coefficients are 2 and ''a'', respectively. Terminology and definition In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Variable (mathematics)
In mathematics, a variable (from Latin '' variabilis'', "changeable") is a symbol that represents a mathematical object. A variable may represent a number, a vector, a matrix, a function, the argument of a function, a set, or an element of a set. Algebraic computations with variables as if they were explicit numbers solve a range of problems in a single computation. For example, the quadratic formula solves any quadratic equation by substituting the numeric values of the coefficients of that equation for the variables that represent them in the quadratic formula. In mathematical logic, a ''variable'' is either a symbol representing an unspecified term of the theory (a metavariable), or a basic object of the theory that is manipulated without referring to its possible intuitive interpretation. History In ancient works such as Euclid's ''Elements'', single letters refer to geometric points and shapes. In the 7th century, Brahmagupta used different colours to represent th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Number
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure, and label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be represented in language with number words. More universally, individual numbers can be represented by symbols, called ''numerals''; for example, "5" is a numeral that represents the number five. As only a relatively small number of symbols can be memorized, basic numerals are commonly organized in a numeral system, which is an organized way to represent any number. The most common numeral system is the Hinduâ€“Arabic numeral system, which allows for the representation of any number using a combination of ten fundamental numeric symbols, called digits. In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels (as with telephone numbers), for ordering (as with serial numbers), and for codes (as with ISBNs). In common usage, a ''numeral'' is not clearly distinguished from the ''numbe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 