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Philippe Charles, Duke Of Anjou
Philippe-Charles, Duke of Anjou (5 August 1668 – 10 July 1671) was the fifth child and second son of King Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain, and as such was a ''fils de France''. Life Philippe-Charles de France was born at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, and titled ''duc d'Anjou'' at birth, a title previously held by Philippe de France, ''duc d'Orléans'', his uncle and the younger brother of Louis XIV. He was baptised at the ''Chapelle des Tuileries à Paris'' on . As a younger son of Louis XIV, Philippe-Charles was not expected to become the Dauphin; however, it was hoped he would inherit the vast fortune of his second cousin, Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, who had no children. According to Nancy Mitford, the Queen, his mother, suggested it many times. While at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Philippe-Charles died of a chest infection, like his elder sister, Anne-Élisabeth de France had died six years before his birth. Upon his de ...
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Philip IV Of Spain
Philip IV ( es|Felipe, pt|Filipe; 8 April 160517 September 1665), called the Great, was King of Spain from 1621 to his death and (as Philip III) King of Portugal from 1621 to 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, and his rule over Spain during the Thirty Years' War. By the time of his death, the Spanish Empire had reached approximately 12.2 million square kilometers (4.7 million square miles) in area but in other aspects was in decline, a process to which Philip contributed with his inability to achieve successful domestic and military reform. Personal life Philip IV was born in Royal Palace of Valladolid, and was the eldest son of Philip III and his wife, Margaret of Austria. In 1615, at the age of 10, Philip was married to 13-year-old Elisabeth of France. Although the relationship does not appear to have been close, some have suggested that Olivares, his key minister, later deliberately tried to keep ...
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Maria Anna Of Bavaria (1551–1608)
Maria Anna of Bavaria (21 March 1551, Munich – 29 April 1608, Graz) was a politically active Archduchess of Austria by marriage to Archduke Charles II of Austria. She played an important role in the counter reformation in Austria. Life Maria Anna was the daughter of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria and Anna of Austria. She was given an elementary education in Latin and religion, but a high education in music, likely by Orlando di Lasso. On 26 August 1571 in Vienna, Maria Anna married her maternal uncle, Charles II of Austria. The marriage was arranged to give Charles political support from Bavaria, and Bavaria an agent in Vienna. The relation between Maria Anna and Charles are described as good. Maria Anna was described as confident, ambitious and a great lover of pomp and power, but foremost as a devoted Catholic. She participated in the affairs of state, and successfully benefited a powerful counter reformation in the domains of her spouse. She continued her education in mus ...
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Charles II, Archduke Of Austria
Charles II Francis of Austria (german: Karl II. Franz von Innerösterreich) (3 June 1540 – 10 July 1590) was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola, Carinthia and Gorizia) from 1564. He was a member of the House of Habsburg. Life A native of Vienna, he was the third son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Hungary and his wife Anne of Foix-Candale. In 1559 and again from 1564–1568 there were negotiations for a marriage between Charles and Elizabeth I of England. Emperor Ferdinand I expected Elizabeth to promise in the proposed marriage treaty that Charles, as her widower, would succeed her if she died childless. The negotiations dragged on until Queen Elizabeth decided that she would not marry the Archduke; religion was the main obstacle to the match,Doran pp.73–98 apart from the Queen's character. In 1563, Charles was also a suitor of Mary, Queen of Scots, with her uncle Charles ...
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Anna Of Austria, Queen Of Spain
Anna of Austria (2 November 1549 – 26 October 1580) was Queen of Spain by marriage to her uncle, King Philip II of Spain. During her last days of life she was also briefly queen of Portugal. Life Anna was the eldest daughter of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, and Maria of Spain, who were first cousins. She was born in Spain during the reign of her maternal grandfather, Emperor Charles V, but lived in Vienna from the age of four. Anna was considered her father's favorite child. The story goes that he enjoyed playing and gambling with her and once a meeting of the Estates of Hungary was postponed because Anna was sick. She received a Catholic education even though her father was sympathetic to Lutheranism. Marriage As the eldest daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor, Anna was a desirable candidate for marriage at the European courts. Her parents thought a Spanish marriage would strengthen links between the Austrian and Spanish Habsburg families. Initially she considered her cous ...
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Philip II Of Spain
Philip II ( es|Felipe II; 21 May 152713 September 1598) was King of Spain (1556–1598), King of Portugal (1580–1598, as Philip I, pt|Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and ''jure uxoris'' King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554 to 1558). He was also Duke of Milan from 1540. From 1555 he was Lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. The son of Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip inherited his father's Spanish Empire, including territories on every continent then known to Europeans. The Philippines were named in his honor by Ruy López de Villalobos. During his reign, the Spanish kingdoms reached the height of their influence and power, sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age. Philip led a highly debt-leveraged regime, seeing state defaults in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, and 1596. This policy was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581. Deeply devou ...
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Joanna Of Austria, Grand Duchess Of Tuscany
Joanna of Austria (German ''Johanna von Österreich'', Italian ''Giovanna d'Austria'') (24 January 1547 – 11 April 1578) was an Archduchess of Austria. By marriage, she was the Grand Princess of Tuscany and later the Grand Duchess of Tuscany. One of her daughters was Marie de' Medici, second wife of King Henry IV of France. Family Joanna was born in Prague, the youngest of 15 children, the youngest daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. She never knew her mother and eldest sister as her mother died 2 days after Joanna's birth and her sister Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of Poland, died two years before Joanna was born. Her paternal grandparents were Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile. Her maternal grandparents were King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary, and Anna of Foix-Candale. Through her father, Joanna was also a descendant of Isabella I of Castile and Mary of Burgundy. Marriage Her marriage to Francesco I de' Medici, Grand D ...
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Francesco I De' Medici, Grand Duke Of Tuscany
Francesco I (25 March 1541 – 19 October 1587) was the second Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1574 until his death in 1587, a member of the House of Medici. Biography Born in Florence, he was the son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Eleanor of Toledo. He served as regent for his father Cosimo after he retired from his governing duties in 1564. Marriage to Joanna of Austria On 18 December 1565, he married Joanna of Austria, youngest daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I and his wife Anne of Bohemia and Hungary, after Princess Elizabeth of Sweden, among others, had been considered. By all reports, it was not a happy marriage. Joanna was homesick for her native Austria, and Francesco was neither charming nor faithful. Joanna died at the age of thirty-one in 1578. Bianca Cappello Soon after Grand Duchess Joanna had died, Francesco went on to marry his Venetian mistress, Bianca Cappello, after aptly disposing of her husband, a Florentine bureaucrat. Be ...
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Jeanne D'Albret
Jeanne d'Albret (Basque: ''Joana Albretekoa''; Occitan: ''Joana de Labrit''; 16 November 1528 – 9 June 1572), also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572. She married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, becoming the Duchess of Vendôme and was the mother of Henri de Bourbon, who became King Henry III of Navarre and IV of France, the first Bourbon king of France. Jeanne was the acknowledged spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenot movement, and a key figure in the French Wars of Religion. After her public conversion to Calvinism in 1560, she joined the Huguenot side. During the first and second war she remained relatively neutral, but in the third war she fled to La Rochelle, becoming the ''de facto'' leader of the Huguenot-controlled city. After negotiating a peace treaty with Catherine de' Medici and arranging the marriage of her son, Henry, to Catherine's daughter, Marguerite de Valois, she died suddenly in Paris. Jeanne was the l ...
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Antoine Of Navarre
| house = Bourbon | father = Charles, Duke of Vendôme | mother = Françoise of Alençon | religion = ''See details'' Antoine (in English, Anthony; 22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562) was the King of Navarre through his marriage (''jure uxoris'') to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death. He was the first monarch of the House of Bourbon, of which he was head from 1537. He was the father of Henry IV of France. Family Antoine was born at La Fère, Picardy, France, the second son of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme (1489–1537), and his wife, Françoise d'Alençon (died 1550). He was the older brother of Louis, Prince of Condé (1530–1569), leader of the Huguenots. In February 1557, Antoine, Jeanne and their son Henry traveled to the French court in Paris, while there King Henry II suggested a betrothal between his daughter Margaret and Henry. Marriage and children On 20 October 1548, at Moulins, Antoine married Jeanne d'Albret, the d ...
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Margaret Of Austria, Queen Of Spain
Margaret of Austria (25 December 1584 – 3 October 1611) was Queen of Spain and Portugal by her marriage to King Philip III & II. Life Margaret was the daughter of Archduke Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria and thus the paternal granddaughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I. Her elder brother was the Archduke Ferdinand, who succeeded as Emperor in 1619. Two of her sisters, Anna and Constance, through their subsequent marriages to King Sigismund III Vasa, became Queens of Poland. Queen of Spain Margaret married Philip III of Spain, her first-cousin, once-removed, on 18 April 1599. She became a very influential figure at her husband's court. Philip had an "affectionate, close relationship" with Margaret, and paid her additional attention after she bore him a son in 1605.Sánchez, p. 100. Margaret was also a great patron of the arts. She was considered by contemporaries to be a very pious Catholic and "astute and very skillful" in her political dealings.Sán ...
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Philip III Of Spain
Philip III ( es|Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain. He was also, as Philip II, King of Portugal, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia and Duke of Milan from 1598 until his death in 1621. A member of the House of Habsburg, Philip III was born in Madrid to King Philip II of Spain and his fourth wife and niece Anna, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain. Philip III later married his cousin Margaret of Austria, sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. Although also known in Spain as Philip the Pious, Philip's political reputation abroad has been largely negative – an 'undistinguished and insignificant man,' a 'miserable monarch,' whose 'only virtue appeared to reside in a total absence of vice,' to quote historians C. V. Wedgwood, R. Stradling and J. H. Elliott. In particular, Philip's reliance on his corrupt chief minister, the Duke of Lerma, drew much criticism at the time and afterwards. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated t ...
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Henry IV Of France
|house = Bourbon |father = Antoine of Navarre |mother = Jeanne III of Navarre |religion =Protestantism 1553-1595 Roman Catholicism 1595-1610 |signature= Signature of Henry IV of France.svg |succession1 = King of Navarre |reign1 = 9 June 1572 – 14 May 1610 |predecessor1 = Jeanne III |successor1 = Louis II Henry IV (french: Henri IV; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother. He inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 o ...
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Elisabeth Of France (1602–1644)
Elisabeth of France or Isabella of Bourbon (22 November 1602 – 6 October 1644) was Queen of Spain from 1621 to her death and Portugal from 1621 to 1640, as the first spouse of King Philip IV & III. She served as regent of Spain during the Catalan Revolt in 1640-42 and 1643-44.Diccionario Biográfico. Real Academia de la Historia
''Isabel de Borbón''
She was the eldest daughter of King Henry IV of France and his second spouse Marie de' Medici.


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