Partition Function (statistical Mechanics)
In physics, a partition function describes the statistical properties of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium. Partition functions are functions of the thermodynamic state variables, such as the temperature and volume. Most of the aggregate thermodynamic variables of the system, such as the total energy, free energy, entropy, and pressure, can be expressed in terms of the partition function or its derivatives. The partition function is dimensionless. Each partition function is constructed to represent a particular statistical ensemble (which, in turn, corresponds to a particular free energy). The most common statistical ensembles have named partition functions. The canonical partition function applies to a canonical ensemble, in which the system is allowed to exchange heat with the environment at fixed temperature, volume, and number of particles. The grand canonical partition function applies to a grand canonical ensemble, in which the system can exchange both hea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Physics
Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, with its main goal being to understand how the universe behaves. "Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flatscreen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of phys ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Number Of Particles
The particle number (or number of particles) of a thermodynamic system, conventionally indicated with the letter ''N'', is the number of constituent particles in that system. The particle number is a fundamental parameter in thermodynamics which is conjugate to the chemical potential. Unlike most physical quantities, particle number is a dimensionless quantity. It is an extensive parameter, as it is directly proportional to the size of the system under consideration, and thus meaningful only for closed systems. A constituent particle is one that cannot be broken into smaller pieces at the scale of energy ''k·T'' involved in the process (where ''k'' is the Boltzmann constant and ''T'' is the temperature). For example, for a thermodynamic system consisting of a piston containing water vapour, the particle number is the number of water molecules in the system. The meaning of constituent particle, and thereby of particle number, is thus temperaturedependent. Determining the particle ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

E (mathematical Constant)
The number , also known as Euler's number, is a mathematical constant approximately equal to 2.71828 that can be characterized in many ways. It is the base of the natural logarithms. It is the limit of as approaches infinity, an expression that arises in the study of compound interest. It can also be calculated as the sum of the infinite series e = \sum\limits_^ \frac = 1 + \frac + \frac + \frac + \cdots. It is also the unique positive number such that the graph of the function has a slope of 1 at . The (natural) exponential function is the unique function that equals its own derivative and satisfies the equation ; hence one can also define as . The natural logarithm, or logarithm to base , is the inverse function to the natural exponential function. The natural logarithm of a number can be defined directly as the area under the curve between and , in which case is the value of for which this area equals one (see image). There are various other characteri ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Microstate (statistical Mechanics)
In statistical mechanics, a microstate is a specific microscopic configuration of a thermodynamic system that the system may occupy with a certain probability in the course of its thermal fluctuations. In contrast, the macrostate of a system refers to its macroscopic properties, such as its temperature, pressure, volume and density. Treatments on statistical mechanics define a macrostate as follows: a particular set of values of energy, the number of particles, and the volume of an isolated thermodynamic system is said to specify a particular macrostate of it. In this description, microstates appear as different possible ways the system can achieve a particular macrostate. A macrostate is characterized by a probability distribution of possible states across a certain statistical ensemble of all microstates. This distribution describes the probability of finding the system in a certain microstate. In the thermodynamic limit, the microstates visited by a macroscopic sys ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Probability Distribution
In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is the mathematical function that gives the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes for an experiment. It is a mathematical description of a random phenomenon in terms of its sample space and the probabilities of events (subsets of the sample space). For instance, if is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss ("the experiment"), then the probability distribution of would take the value 0.5 (1 in 2 or 1/2) for , and 0.5 for (assuming that the coin is fair). Examples of random phenomena include the weather conditions at some future date, the height of a randomly selected person, the fraction of male students in a school, the results of a survey to be conducted, etc. Introduction A probability distribution is a mathematical description of the probabilities of events, subsets of the sample space. The sample space, often denoted by \Omega, is the set of all possible outcomes of a rando ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Discrete Mathematics
Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that can be considered "discrete" (in a way analogous to discrete variables, having a bijection with the set of natural numbers) rather than "continuous" (analogously to continuous functions). Objects studied in discrete mathematics include integers, graphs, and statements in logic. By contrast, discrete mathematics excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as real numbers, calculus or Euclidean geometry. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by integers; more formally, discrete mathematics has been characterized as the branch of mathematics dealing with countable sets (finite sets or sets with the same cardinality as the natural numbers). However, there is no exact definition of the term "discrete mathematics". The set of objects studied in discrete mathematics can be finite or infinite. The term finite mathematics is sometimes applied to parts of the field of discrete mathematics that deals with ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all quantum physics including quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum information science. Classical physics, the collection of theories that existed before the advent of quantum mechanics, describes many aspects of nature at an ordinary ( macroscopic) scale, but is not sufficient for describing them at small (atomic and subatomic) scales. Most theories in classical physics can be derived from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid at large (macroscopic) scale. Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other quantities of a bound system are restricted to discrete values ( quantization); objects have characteristics of both particles and waves ( wave–particle duality); and there are lim ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Classical Mechanics
Classical mechanics is a physical theory describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. For objects governed by classical mechanics, if the present state is known, it is possible to predict how it will move in the future (determinism), and how it has moved in the past (reversibility). The earliest development of classical mechanics is often referred to as Newtonian mechanics. It consists of the physical concepts based on foundational works of Sir Isaac Newton, and the mathematical methods invented by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, JosephLouis Lagrange, Leonhard Euler, and other contemporaries, in the 17th century to describe the motion of bodies under the influence of a system of forces. Later, more abstract methods were developed, leading to the reformulations of classical mechanics known as Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics. These advance ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degrees Of Freedom
Degrees of freedom (often abbreviated df or DOF) refers to the number of independent variables or parameters of a thermodynamic system. In various scientific fields, the word "freedom" is used to describe the limits to which physical movement or other physical processes are possible. This relates to the philosophical concept to the extent that people may be considered to have as much freedom as they are physically able to exercise. Applications Statistics In statistics, degrees of freedom refers to the number of variables in a statistic calculation that can vary. It can be calculated by subtracting the number of estimated parameters from the total number of values in the sample. For example, a sample variance calculation based on n samples will have n1 degrees of freedom, because sample variance is calculated using the sample mean as an estimate of the actual mean. Mathematics In mathematics, this notion is formalized as the dimension of a manifold or an algebraic variety. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Expression
In mathematics, an expression or mathematical expression is a finite combination of symbols that is wellformed according to rules that depend on the context. Mathematical symbols can designate numbers ( constants), variables, operations, functions, brackets, punctuation, and grouping to help determine order of operations and other aspects of logical syntax. Many authors distinguish an expression from a ''formula'', the former denoting a mathematical object, and the latter denoting a statement about mathematical objects. For example, 8x5 is an expression, while 8x5 \geq 5x8 is a formula. However, in modern mathematics, and in particular in computer algebra, formulas are viewed as expressions that can be evaluated to ''true'' or ''false'', depending on the values that are given to the variables occurring in the expressions. For example 8x5 \geq 5x8 takes the value ''false'' if is given a value less than –1, and the value ''true'' otherwise. Examples The use of expre ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Thermal Contact
In heat transfer and thermodynamics, a thermodynamic system is said to be in thermal contact with another system if it can exchange energy through the process of heat. Perfect thermal isolation is an idealization as real systems are always in thermal contact with their environment to some extent. When two solid bodies are in contact, a resistance to heat transfer exists between the bodies. The study of heat conduction between such bodies is called thermal contact conductance (or thermal contact resistance). References See also *Thermal equilibrium  When two objects A and B are in thermal contact and there is no net transfer of thermal energy from A to B or from B to A, they are said to be in thermal equilibrium. The majority of objects experiencing thermal equilibrium still do exchange thermal energy but do so equally so that the net heat transfer is zero. *Perfect thermal contact *Zeroth law of thermodynamics The zeroth law of thermodynamics is one of the four principal la ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Meaning And Significance
Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discussed in philosophy * Meaning (nonlinguistic), a general term of art to capture senses of the word "meaning", independent from its linguistic uses * The meaning of life, the significance, purpose, or worth of human existence Meaning may also refer to: * Meaning (psychology), epistemological position, in psychology as well as philosophy, linguistics, semiotics and sociology * Meaning (semiotics), the distribution of signs in sign relations * Meaning (existential), the meaning of life in contemporary existentialism Arts and entertainment * ''Meanings'' (album), a 2004 album by Gad Elbaz * "Meaning" (''House''), a 2006 episode of the TV series ''House'' * Meaning (music), the philosophical question of meaning in relation to music *"The Meaning", a song on ''Discipline'' (Janet Jackson album) (20 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 