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Particle Size (grain Size)
Grain size (or particle size) is the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks. The term may also be applied to other granular materials. This is different from the crystallite size, which refers to the size of a single crystal inside a particle or grain. A single grain can be composed of several crystals. Granular material can range from very small colloidal particles, through clay, silt, sand, gravel, and cobbles, to boulders. Krumbein phi scale Size ranges define limits of classes that are given names in the Wentworth scale (or Udden–Wentworth scale) used in the United States. The Krumbein ''phi'' (φ) scale, a modification of the Wentworth scale created by W. C. Krumbein in 1934, is a logarithmic scale computed by the equation :\varphi=-\log_2, where :\varphi is the Krumbein phi scale, :D is the diameter of the particle or grain in millimeters (Krumbein and Monk's equation) and :D_0 is a reference diameter, equal to 1 m ...
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Crystallite
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials. Crystallites are also referred to as grains. Structure The orientation of crystallites can be random with no preferred direction, called random texture, or directed, possibly due to growth and processing conditions. Fiber texture is an example of the latter. While the structure of a (single) crystal is highly ordered and its lattice is continuous and unbroken, amorphous materials, such as glass and many polymers, are non-crystalline and do not display any structures, as their constituents are not arranged in an ordered manner. Polycrystalline structures and paracrystalline phases are in-between these two extremes. Polycrystalline materials, or polycrystals, are solids that are composed of many crystallites of varying size and orientation. Most materials are polycrystalline, made of a large number crystallites held together by thin layers of amorphous solid. Most ino ...
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Logarithmic Scale
A logarithmic scale (or log scale) is a way of displaying numerical data over a very wide range of values in a compact way—typically the largest numbers in the data are hundreds or even thousands of times larger than the smallest numbers. Such a scale is nonlinear: the numbers 10 and 20, and 60 and 70, are not the same distance apart on a log scale. Rather, the numbers 10 and 100, and 60 and 600 are equally spaced. Thus moving a unit of distance along the scale means the number has been ''multiplied'' by 10 (or some other fixed factor). Often exponential growth curves are displayed on a log scale, otherwise they would increase too quickly to fit within a small graph. Another way to think about it is that the ''number of digits'' of the data grows at a constant rate. For example, the numbers 10, 100, 1000, and 10000 are equally spaced on a log scale, because their numbers of digits is going up by 1 each time: 2, 3, 4, and 5 digits. In this way, adding two digits ''multiplies'' the qua ...
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Martin Diameter
The Martin diameter is the length of the area bisector of an irregular object in a specified measuring direction. It is used to measure particle size in microscopy.Operating Manual, Particle size analysis system CAMSIZER, Retsch Technology GmbH, Germany, 2010 See also * Feret diameter References External links Martin's diameter, Photonics Dictionary Plus {{science-stub Category:Microscopy ...
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Feret Diameter
The Feret diameter or Feret's diameter is a measure of an object size along a specified direction. In general, it can be defined as the distance between the two parallel planes restricting the object perpendicular to that direction. It is therefore also called the caliper diameter, referring to the measurement of the object size with a caliper. This measure is used in the analysis of particle sizes, for example in microscopy, where it is applied to projections of a three-dimensional (3D) object on a 2D plane. In such cases, the Feret diameter is defined as the distance between two parallel tangential ''lines'' rather than ''planes''. Mathematical properties From Cauchy's theorem it follows that for a 2D convex body, the Feret diameter averaged over all directions (〈F〉) is equal to the ratio of the object perimeter (P) and pi, i.e.,〈F〉= P/. There is no such relation between〈F〉and P for a concave object. Applications Feret diameter is used in the analysis of particle s ...
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International Organization For Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial, and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and works in 165 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. Overview The International Organization for Standardization is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the 165 member countries. It is the world's largest developer of voluntary international standards and it facilitates world trade by providing common standards among nations. More than twenty thousand standards have been set, covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety, agriculture, and healthcare. ...
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Colloid
A colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles are suspended throughout another substance. However, some definitions specify that the particles must be dispersed in a liquid, and others extend the definition to include substances like aerosols and gels. The term colloidal suspension refers unambiguously to the overall mixture (although a narrower sense of the word ''suspension'' is distinguished from colloids by larger particle size). A colloid has a dispersed phase (the suspended particles) and a continuous phase (the medium of suspension). The dispersed phase particles have a diameter of approximately 1 nanometre to 1 micrometre. Some colloids are translucent because of the Tyndall effect, which is the scattering of light by particles in the colloid. Other colloids may be opaque or have a slight color. Colloidal suspensions are the subject of interface and colloid science. This field of study was introduced in 1845 by Italian chem ...
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Nanometre
The nanometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre ( m). One nanometre can be expressed in scientific notation as , in engineering notation as , and as simply metres. History The nanometre was formerly known as the millimicrometre – or, more commonly, the millimicron for short – since it is of a micron (micrometre), and was often denoted by the symbol mµ or (more rarely and confusingly, since it logically should refer to a ''millionth'' of a micron) as µµ. Etymology The name combines the SI prefix ''nano-'' (from the Ancient Greek , ', "dwarf") with the parent unit name ''metre'' (from Greek , ', "unit of measurement"). When used as a prefix for something other than a unit of measure (as in "nanoscience"), nano refers to nanotechnology, or phenomena typically occurring on a s ...
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Clay
Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil material containing clay minerals. Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay particles, but become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Most pure clay minerals are white or light-coloured, but natural clays show a variety of colours from impurities, such as a reddish or brownish colour from small amounts of iron oxide. Clay is the oldest known ceramic material. Prehistoric humans discovered the useful properties of clay and used it for making pottery. Some of the earliest pottery shards have been dated to around 14,000 BC, and clay tablets were the first known writing medium. Clay is used in many modern industrial processes, such as paper making, cement production, and chemical filtering. Between one-half and two-thirds of the world's population still live or work in buildings made with clay, often baked into brick, as an essential part of its load-bearing structure. ...
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Silt
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar. Silt may occur as a soil (often mixed with sand or clay) or as sediment mixed in suspension with water (also known as a suspended load) and soil in a body of water such as a river. It may also exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water body, like mudflows from landslides. Silt has a moderate specific area with a typically non-sticky, plastic feel. Silt usually has a floury feel when dry, and a slippery feel when wet. Silt can be visually observed with a hand lens, exhibiting a sparkly appearance. It also can be felt by the tongue as granular when placed on the front teeth (even when mixed with clay particles). Sources Silt is created by a variety of physical processes capable of splitting the generally sand-sized quartz crystals of primary rocks by exploiting deficiencies in their lattice. These involve chemical weathering of rock and regolith, and a number of physical wea ...
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Micrometre
The micrometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equalling (SI standard prefix "micro-" = 10−6); that is, one millionth of a metre (or one thousandth of a millimetre, 0.001 mm, or about 0.000039 inch). The next smallest common SI unit is the nanometre, equivalent to one one-thousandth of a micrometre, or one billionth of a metre ( m). The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria, and for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres. The width of a single human hair ranges from approximately 20 to 200 μm. The longest human chromosome is approximately 10 μm in length. Examples Between 1 μm and 10 μm: * 1–10 μm – length of a typical bacterium * 10 μm – Size of fungal hyphae * 5 μm – ...
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Granule (geology)
A granule is a clast of rock with a particle size of 2 to 4 millimetres based on the Krumbein phi scale of sedimentology. Granules are generally considered to be larger than sand (0.0625 to 2 millimetres diameter) and smaller than pebbles (4 to 64 millimetres diameter). A rock made predominantly of granules is termed a granule conglomerate.Folk, R.L. (1980) ''The Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks.'' Austin, Texas, Hemphill Publishing Company. 182 pp. See also *Gravel *Particle size (grain size) References Category:Stone (material) Category:Sedimentology Category:Granularity of materials {{petrology-stub ...
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Pebble
A pebble is a clast of rock with a particle size of 4 to 64 millimetres based on the Udden-Wentworth scale of sedimentology. Pebbles are generally considered larger than granules (2 to 4 millimetres diameter) and smaller than cobbles (64 to 256 millimetres diameter). A rock made predominantly of pebbles is termed a conglomerate. Pebble tools are among the earliest known man-made artifacts, dating from the Palaeolithic period of human history. A beach composed chiefly of surface pebbles is commonly termed a shingle beach. This type of beach has armoring characteristics with respect to wave erosion, as well as ecological niches that provide habitat for animals and plants. Inshore banks of shingle (large quantities of pebbles) exist in some locations, such as the entrance to the River Ore, where the moving banks of shingle give notable navigational challenges. Pebbles come in various colors and textures and can have streaks, known as veins, of quartz or other minerals. P ...
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Cobble (geology)
A cobble (sometimes a cobblestone) is a clast of rock defined on the Udden–Wentworth scale as having a particle size of , larger than a pebble and smaller than a boulder. Other scales define a cobble's size differently. A rock made predominantly of cobbles is termed a conglomerate. Cobblestone is a building material based on cobbles. Etymology Cobbles, also called cobblestones, derive their name from the word cob, meaning a rounded lump. The term is further related to the German ', meaning ''head''. Chester Wentworth referred to cobbles as ''cobble bowlders'' in his 1922 paper that would become the basis for the Udden–Wentworth scale. Classifications Within the widely used Krumbein phi scale of grain sizes, cobbles are defined as clasts of rock ranging from −6 to −8 φ. This classification corresponds with the Udden–Wentworth size scale which defines cobbles as clasts with diameters from . On this scale, cobbles are larger than pebbles which measure in diameter and sm ...
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Boulder
This balancing boulder, "Balanced Rock", stands in Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States.">Colorado Springs, CO">Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States. , Québec File:Kämmenkivi stone in Pisa, Kuopio, Finland.jpg|''Kämmenkivi'' stone on the Pisa hill in [[Kuopio, Finland In [[geology ([[Udden–Wentworth scale), a boulder is a [[rock (geology)|rock fragment with size greater than in diameter. Smaller pieces are called [[cobble (geology)|cobbles and pebbles. While a boulder may be small enough to move or roll manually, others are extremely massive. In common usage, a boulder is too large for a person to move. Smaller boulders are usually just called rocks (American English) or stones (In British English a rock is larger than a boulder). The word ''boulder'' is short for ''boulder stone'', from Middle English ''bulderston'' or Swedish ''bullersten''.
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Dimensional Analysis
In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometres, or pounds vs. kilograms) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed. The conversion of units from one dimensional unit to another is often easier within the metric or SI system than in others, due to the regular 10-base in all units. Dimensional analysis, or more specifically the factor-label method, also known as the unit-factor method, is a widely used technique for such conversions using the rules of algebra. ''Commensurable'' physical quantities are of the same kind and have the same dimension, and can be directly compared to each other, even if they are originally expressed in differing units of measure, e.g. yards and metres, pounds(mass) and kilograms, seconds and years. ''Incommensurabl ...
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