Number Theory
Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and integervalued functions. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number theory is the queen of mathematics."German original: "Die Mathematik ist die Königin der Wissenschaften, und die Arithmetik ist die Königin der Mathematik." Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of mathematical objects made out of integers (for example, rational numbers) or defined as generalizations of the integers (for example, algebraic integers). Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations (Diophantine geometry). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects (for example, the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes or other numbertheoretic objects in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spirale Ulam 150
Spirale is a French government programme to develop an early warning system which will use infrared satellite imagery to detect the flights of ballistic missiles during their boost phase, just after launch. SPIRALE is an acronym which stands for "''Système Préparatoire InfraRouge pour l’ALErte''", literally "infrared preparatory system for alert". The demonstrator system includes two microsatellites and an alert and monitoring ground segment. The satellites have been launched by Ariane 5 Ariane 5 is a European heavylift space launch vehicle developed and operated by Arianespace for the European Space Agency (ESA). It is launched from the Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) in French Guiana. It has been used to deliver payloads into ... on 12 February 2009. References Missile defense Spacecraft launched in 2009 Satellites of France {{Francespacecraftstub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Logic
Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Research in mathematical logic commonly addresses the mathematical properties of formal systems of logic such as their expressive or deductive power. However, it can also include uses of logic to characterize correct mathematical reasoning or to establish foundations of mathematics. Since its inception, mathematical logic has both contributed to and been motivated by the study of foundations of mathematics. This study began in the late 19th century with the development of axiomatic frameworks for geometry, arithmetic, and analysis. In the early 20th century it was shaped by David Hilbert's program to prove the consistency of foundational theories. Results of Kurt Gödel, Gerhard Gentzen, and others provided partial resolution to the program, and clarified the issues involved in proving consistency. Work in set theory showed ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Babylonian Mathematics
Babylonian mathematics (also known as ''AssyroBabylonian mathematics'') are the mathematics developed or practiced by the people of Mesopotamia, from the days of the early Sumerians to the centuries following the fall of Babylon in 539 BC. Babylonian mathematical texts are plentiful and well edited. With respect to time they fall in two distinct groups: one from the Old Babylonian period (1830–1531 BC), the other mainly Seleucid from the last three or four centuries BC. With respect to content, there is scarcely any difference between the two groups of texts. Babylonian mathematics remained constant, in character and content, for nearly two millennia. In contrast to the scarcity of sources in Egyptian mathematics, knowledge of Babylonian mathematics is derived from some 400 clay tablets unearthed since the 1850s. Written in Cuneiform script, tablets were inscribed while the clay was moist, and baked hard in an oven or by the heat of the sun. The majority of recovered clay ta ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Babylonian Astronomy
Babylonian astronomy was the study or recording of celestial objects during the early history of Mesopotamia. Babylonian astronomy seemed to have focused on a select group of stars and constellations known as Ziqpu stars. These constellations may have been collected from various earlier sources. The earliest catalogue, ''Three Stars Each'', mentions stars of the Akkadian Empire, of Amurru, of Elam and others. A numbering system based on sixty was used, a sexagesimal system. This system simplified the calculating and recording of unusually great and small numbers. The modern practices of dividing a circle into 360 degrees, of 60 minutes each, began with the Sumerians. During the 8th and 7th centuries BC, Babylonian astronomers developed a new empirical approach to astronomy. They began studying and recording their belief system and philosophies dealing with an ideal nature of the universe and began employing an internal logic within their predictive planetary systems. This ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Old Babylonian Language
Akkadian (, Akkadian: )John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages''. Ed. Roger D. Woodard (2004, Cambridge) Pages 218280 is an extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia ( Akkad, Assyria, Isin, Larsa and Babylonia) from the third millennium BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadianinfluenced Old Aramaic among Mesopotamians by the 8th century BC. It is the earliest documented Semitic language. It used the cuneiform script, which was originally used to write the unrelated, and also extinct, Sumerian (which is a language isolate). Akkadian is named after the city of Akkad, a major centre of Mesopotamian civilization during the Akkadian Empire (c. 2334–2154 BC). The mutual influence between Sumerian and Akkadian had led scholars to describe the languages as a ''Sprachbund''. Akkadian proper names were first attested in Sumerian texts from around the mid 3rdmil ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Identity (mathematics)
In mathematics, an identity is an equality relating one mathematical expression ''A'' to another mathematical expression ''B'', such that ''A'' and ''B'' (which might contain some variables) produce the same value for all values of the variables within a certain range of validity. In other words, ''A'' = ''B'' is an identity if ''A'' and ''B'' define the same functions, and an identity is an equality between functions that are differently defined. For example, (a+b)^2 = a^2 + 2ab + b^2 and \cos^2\theta + \sin^2\theta =1 are identities. Identities are sometimes indicated by the triple bar symbol instead of , the equals sign. Common identities Algebraic identities Certain identities, such as a+0=a and a+(a)=0, form the basis of algebra, while other identities, such as (a+b)^2 = a^2 + 2ab +b^2 and a^2  b^2 = (a+b)(ab), can be useful in simplifying algebraic expressions and expanding them. Trigonometric identities Geometrically, trigonometric id ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Brute Force Method
Proof by exhaustion, also known as proof by cases, proof by case analysis, complete induction or the brute force method, is a method of mathematical proof in which the statement to be proved is split into a finite number of cases or sets of equivalent cases, and where each type of case is checked to see if the proposition in question holds. This is a method of direct proof. A proof by exhaustion typically contains two stages: # A proof that the set of cases is exhaustive; i.e., that each instance of the statement to be proved matches the conditions of (at least) one of the cases. # A proof of each of the cases. The prevalence of digital computers has greatly increased the convenience of using the method of exhaustion (e.g., the first computerassisted proof of four color theorem in 1976), though such approaches can also be challenged on the basis of mathematical elegance. Expert systems can be used to arrive at answers to many of the questions posed to them. In theory, the proof ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pythagorean Triple
A Pythagorean triple consists of three positive integers , , and , such that . Such a triple is commonly written , and a wellknown example is . If is a Pythagorean triple, then so is for any positive integer . A primitive Pythagorean triple is one in which , and are coprime (that is, they have no common divisor larger than 1). For example, is a primitive Pythagorean triple whereas is not. A triangle whose sides form a Pythagorean triple is called a Pythagorean triangle, and is necessarily a right triangle. The name is derived from the Pythagorean theorem, stating that every right triangle has side lengths satisfying the formula a^2+b^2=c^2; thus, Pythagorean triples describe the three integer side lengths of a right triangle. However, right triangles with noninteger sides do not form Pythagorean triples. For instance, the triangle with sides a=b=1 and c=\sqrt2 is a right triangle, but (1,1,\sqrt2) is not a Pythagorean triple because \sqrt2 is not an integer. Moreover, 1 and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Larsa
Larsa ( Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI, read ''Larsamki''), also referred to as Larancha/Laranchon (Gk. Λαραγχων) by Berossos and connected with the biblical Ellasar, was an important citystate of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu. It lies some southeast of Uruk in Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate, near the east bank of the ShattenNil canal at the site of the modern settlement Tell asSenkereh or Sankarah. History The historical "Larsa" was already in existence as early as the reign of Eannatum of Lagash (reigned circa 2500–2400 BCE), who annexed it to his empire. The city became a political force during the IsinLarsa period. After the Third Dynasty of Ur collapsed c. 2000 BC, IshbiErra, an official of the last king of the Third Dynasty of Ur, IbbiSin, relocated to Isin and set up a government which purported to be the successor to the Third Dynasty of Ur. From there, IshbiErra recaptured Ur as well as the cities of Uruk and Lagash, which ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Plimpton 322
Plimpton 322 is a Babylonian clay tablet, notable as containing an example of Babylonian mathematics. It has number 322 in the G.A. Plimpton Collection at Columbia University. This tablet, believed to have been written about 1800 BC, has a table of four columns and 15 rows of numbers in the cuneiform script of the period. This table lists two of the three numbers in what are now called Pythagorean triples, i.e., integers , , and satisfying . From a modern perspective, a method for constructing such triples is a significant early achievement, known long before the Greek and Indian mathematicians discovered solutions to this problem. At the same time, one should recall the tablet's author was a scribe, rather than a professional mathematician; it has been suggested that one of his goals may have been to produce examples for school problems. There has been significant scholarly debate on the nature and purpose of the tablet. For readable popular treatments of this tablet see re ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

An Introduction To The Theory Of Numbers
''An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers'' is a classic textbook in the field of number theory, by G. H. Hardy and E. M. Wright. The book grew out of a series of lectures by Hardy and Wright and was first published in 1938. The third edition added an elementary proof of the prime number theorem, and the sixth edition added a chapter on elliptic curves. See also * List of important publications in mathematics This is a list of important publications in mathematics, organized by field. Some reasons why a particular publication might be regarded as important: *Topic creator – A publication that created a new topic *Breakthrough – A public ... References * * * * * Mathematics textbooks Number theory 1938 nonfiction books {{mathematicslitstub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Harold Davenport
Harold Davenport FRS (30 October 1907 – 9 June 1969) was an English mathematician, known for his extensive work in number theory. Early life Born on 30 October 1907 in Huncoat, Lancashire, Davenport was educated at Accrington Grammar School, the University of Manchester (graduating in 1927), and Trinity College, Cambridge. He became a research student of John Edensor Littlewood, working on the question of the distribution of quadratic residues. First steps in research The attack on the distribution question leads quickly to problems that are now seen to be special cases of those on local zetafunctions, for the particular case of some special hyperelliptic curves such as Y^2 = X(X1)(X2)\ldots (Xk). Bounds for the zeroes of the local zetafunction immediately imply bounds for sums \sum \chi(X(X1)(X2)\ldots (Xk)), where χ is the Legendre symbol '' modulo'' a prime number ''p'', and the sum is taken over a complete set of residues mod ''p''. In the light of this con ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 