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Management Consultant
Management consulting is the practice of providing consulting services to organizations to improve their performance or in any way to assist in achieving organizational objectives. Organizations may draw upon the services of management consultants for a number of reasons, including gaining external (and presumably objective) advice and accessing consultants' specialized expertise regarding concerns that call for additional oversight. As a result of their exposure to and relationships with numerous organizations, consulting firms are typically aware of industry "best practices". However, the specific nature of situations under consideration may limit the ability or appropriateness of transferring such practices from one organization to another. Management consulting is an additional service to internal management functions and, for various legal and practical reasons, may not be seen as a replacement for internal management. Unlike interim management, management consultants do not ...
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Consultant
A consultant (from la, consultare "to deliberate") is a professional (also known as ''expert'', ''specialist'', see variations of meaning below) who provides advice and other purposeful activities in an area of specialization. Consulting services generally fall under the domain of professional services, as contingent work. A consultant is employed or involved in giving professional advice to the public or to those practicing the profession. Definition and distinction The Harvard Business School provides a more specific definition of a consultant as someone who advises on "how to modify, proceed in, or streamline a given process within a specialized field". In his book, ''The Consulting Bible'', Alan Weiss defines that "When we onsultantswalk away from a client, the client's conditions should be better than it was before we arrived or we've failed." There is no legal protection given to the job title 'consultant'.Consultancy.ukWhat is a consultant? accessed 29 June 2021 ...
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Glass–Steagall Legislation
The Glass–Steagall legislation describes four provisions of the United States Banking Act of 1933 separating commercial and investment banking.. Wilmarth 1990, p. 1161. The article 1933 Banking Act describes the entire law, including the legislative history of the provisions covered herein. As with the Glass–Steagall Act of 1932, the common name comes from the names of the Congressional sponsors, Senator Carter Glass and Representative Henry B. Steagall. The separation of commercial and investment banking prevented securities firms and investment banks from taking deposits, and commercial Federal Reserve member banks from: * dealing in non-governmental securities for customers, * investing in non-investment grade securities for themselves, * underwriting or distributing non-governmental securities, * affiliating (or sharing employees) with companies involved in such activities. Starting in the early 1960s, federal banking regulators' interpretations of the Act permitted ...
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Ernst & Young
Ernst & Young Global Limited, trade name EY, is a multinational professional services partnership headquartered in London, England. EY is one of the largest professional services networks in the world. Along with Deloitte, KPMG and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), it is considered one of the Big Four accounting firms. It primarily provides assurance (which includes financial audit), tax, consulting and advisory services to its clients. Like many of the larger accounting firms in recent years, EY has expanded into markets adjacent to accounting, including strategy, operations, HR, technology, and financial services consulting. EY operates as a network of member firms which are structured as separate legal entities in a partnership, which has 312,250 employees in over 700 offices in more than 150 countries around the world. The firm's current partnership was formed in 1989 by a merger of two accounting firms; Ernst & Whinney and Arthur Young & Co. It was named Ernst & Young ...
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KPMG
KPMG International Limited (or simply KPMG) is a multinational professional services network, and one of the Big Four accounting organizations. Headquartered in Amstelveen, Netherlands, although incorporated in London, England, KPMG is a network of firms in 145 countries, with over 265,000 employees and has three lines of services: financial audit, tax, and advisory. Its tax and advisory services are further divided into various service groups. Over the past decade various parts of the firm's global network of affiliates have been involved in regulatory actions as well as lawsuits. The name "KPMG" stands for "Klynveld Peat Marwick Goerdeler". The initialism was chosen when KMG (Klynveld Main Goerdeler) merged with Peat Marwick in 1987. History Early years and mergers In 1818, John Moxham opened a company in Bristol. James Grace and James Grace Jr. bought John Moxham & Co. and renamed it James Grace & Son in 1857. In 1861, Henry Grace joined James Jr. and t ...
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PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers is an international professional services brand of firms, operating as partnerships under the PwC brand. It is the second-largest professional services network in the world and is considered one of the Big Four accounting firms, along with Deloitte, EY and KPMG. PwC firms are in 157 countries, across 742 locations, with 284,000 people. As of 2019, 26% of the workforce was based in the Americas, 26% in Asia, 32% in Western Europe and 5% in Middle East and Africa. The company's global revenues were $42.4 billion in FY 2019, of which $17.4 billion was generated by its Assurance practice, $10.7 billion by its Tax and Legal practice and $14.4 billion by its Advisory practice. The firm in its recent actual form was created in 1998 by a merger between two accounting firms: Coopers & Lybrand, and Price Waterhouse. Both firms had histories dating back to the 19th century. The trading name was shortened to PwC (stylized p''w''c) in September 2010 as part of a ...
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Big Four (audit Firms)
The Big Four are the four largest professional services networks in the world, the global accounting networks Deloitte, Ernst & Young (EY), KPMG, and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC). The four are often grouped because they are comparable in size relative to the rest of the market, both in terms of revenue and workforce; they are considered equal in their ability to provide a wide scope of professional services to their clients; and, among those looking to start a career in professional services, particularly accounting, they are considered equally attractive networks to work in, because of the frequency with which these firms engage with ''Fortune'' 500 companies. The Big Four each offer audit, assurance, taxation, management consulting, actuarial, corporate finance, and legal services to their clients. A significant majority of the audits of public companies, as well as many audits of private companies, are conducted by these four networks. Until the late 20th century, the m ...
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Gross Domestic Product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced and sold (not resold) in a specific time period by countries. Due to its complex and subjective nature this measure is often revised before being considered a reliable indicator. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore, using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) may be more useful when comparing living standards between nations, while nominal GDP is more useful comparing national economies on the international market. Total GDP can also be broken down into the contribution of each industry or sector of the economy. The ratio of GDP to the total population of the region is the per capita GDP (also called the Mean Standard of Living). GDP definitions are maintained by a number of national and international economic organizations. The Org ...
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Boston Consulting Group
Boston Consulting Group, Inc. (BCG) is an American global management consulting firm founded in 1963 and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts. It is one of the Big Three (or MBB, the world’s three largest management consulting firms by revenue) along with Bain & Company and McKinsey & Company. Since 2021, the consultancy has been led by the German executive Christoph Schweizer. History The firm was founded in 1963 part of The Boston Safe Deposit and Trust Company. Henderson had been recruited from Arthur D. Little to establish the consulting arm operating as a subsidiary under the name Management and Consulting Division of the Boston Safe Deposit and Trust Company. Initially the division only advised clients of the bank, with billings for the first month at just US$500. Henderson hired his second consultant, Arthur P. Contas, in December 1963. In 1966, BCG opened its second office in Tokyo, Japan. In 1967, Henderson met Bill Bain and offered him a role at the firm. B ...
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McKinsey & Company
McKinsey & Company is a global management consulting firm founded in 1926 by University of Chicago professor James O. McKinsey, that offers professional services to corporations, governments, and other organizations. McKinsey is the oldest and largest of the " Big Three" management consultancies (MBB), the world's three largest strategy consulting firms by revenue. The firm mainly focuses on the finances and operations of their clients. Under the leadership of Marvin Bower, McKinsey expanded into Europe during the 1940s and 1950s. In the 1960s, McKinsey's Fred Gluck—along with Boston Consulting Group's Bruce Henderson, Bill Bain at Bain & Company, and Harvard Business School's Michael Porter—transformed corporate culture. A 1975 publication by McKinsey's John L. Neuman introduced the business practice of "overhead value analysis" that contributed to a downsizing trend that eliminated many jobs in middle management. McKinsey has a notoriously competitive hiring process ...
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Alfred Rappaport (economist)
Alfred Rappaport (born 1932) is an American economist, educator and author. He is the Leonard Spacek Professor Emeritus at Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University and is best known for further developing the idea of shareholder value, popularized by his 1986 book, ''Creating Shareholder Value''. He was chairman of Chicago consulting firm The Alcar Group and resided in La Jolla, California, The Alcar Group co-founder In 1979, he co-founded The Alcar Group in Skokie, Illinois with Carl Noble Jr, and served as its chairman. Alcar designed financial modeling products used to analyze the monetary impact of various business strategies, including mergers and acquisitions, divestitures and debt restructuring. In 1993, Alcar merged with L.E.K. Partnership, which then rebranded to LEK/Alcar Consulting Group LLC. From the mid-1990s, the company pioneered value-based management (VBM), based on Rappaport's academic work. The company merged with software maker Hyperion So ...
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Joel Stern
Joel M. Stern was chairman and chief executive officer of Stern Value Management, formerly Stern Stewart & Co, and the creator and developer of economic value added. He was a recognised authority on financial economics, corporate performance measurement, corporate valuation and incentive compensation and was a pioneer and leading advocate of the concept of shareholder value. He was also active in academia, and in the media. Career After graduating from the University of Chicago's graduate program in Finance and Economics ( MBA, Chicago-Booth, 1964), he joined the Chase Manhattan Bank where he ultimately ran Chase Financial Policy, their global consulting operation. During this time, he developed EVA. In 1982, after 18 years at Chase Manhattan, he started Stern Stewart. He is the author of two books and the co-author of six others – all in financial economics. He served as the executive editor of the '' Journal of Applied Corporate Finance'' and was a member of the editoria ...
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Value-based Management
Shareholder value is a business term, sometimes phrased as shareholder value maximization. It became prominent during the 1980s and 1990s along with the management principle value-based management or "managing for value". Definition The term "shareholder value", sometimes abbreviated to "SV", can be used to refer to: *The market capitalization of a company; *The concept that the primary goal for a company is to increase the wealth of its shareholders (owners) by paying dividends and/or causing the stock price to increase (i.e. the Friedman doctrine introduced in 1970); *The more specific concept that planned actions by management and the returns to shareholders should outperform certain bench-marks such as the cost of capital concept. In essence, the idea that shareholders' money should be used to earn a higher return than they could earn themselves by investing in other assets having the same amount of risk. The term in this sense was introduced by Alfred Rappaport in 1986. F ...
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