Linearization
In mathematics, linearization is finding the linear approximation to a function at a given point. The linear approximation of a function is the first order Taylor expansion around the point of interest. In the study of dynamical systems, linearization is a method for assessing the local stability of an equilibrium point of a system of nonlinear differential equations or discrete dynamical systems. This method is used in fields such as engineering, physics, economics, and ecology. Linearization of a function Linearizations of a function are lines—usually lines that can be used for purposes of calculation. Linearization is an effective method for approximating the output of a function y = f(x) at any x = a based on the value and slope of the function at x = b, given that f(x) is differentiable on , b/math> (or , a/math>) and that a is close to b. In short, linearization approximates the output of a function near x = a. For example, \sqrt = 2. However, what would be a good ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linearization Theorem
In mathematics, linearization is finding the linear approximation to a function at a given point. The linear approximation of a function is the first order Taylor expansion around the point of interest. In the study of dynamical systems, linearization is a method for assessing the local stability of an equilibrium point of a system of nonlinear differential equations or discrete dynamical systems. This method is used in fields such as engineering, physics, economics, and ecology. Linearization of a function Linearizations of a function are lines—usually lines that can be used for purposes of calculation. Linearization is an effective method for approximating the output of a function y = f(x) at any x = a based on the value and slope of the function at x = b, given that f(x) is differentiable on , b/math> (or , a/math>) and that a is close to b. In short, linearization approximates the output of a function near x = a. For example, \sqrt = 2. However, what would be a good app ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nonlinear
In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input. Nonlinear problems are of interest to engineers, biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and many other scientists because most systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. Nonlinear dynamical systems, describing changes in variables over time, may appear chaotic, unpredictable, or counterintuitive, contrasting with much simpler linear systems. Typically, the behavior of a nonlinear system is described in mathematics by a nonlinear system of equations, which is a set of simultaneous equations in which the unknowns (or the unknown functions in the case of differential equations) appear as variables of a polynomial of degree higher than one or in the argument of a function which is not a polynomial of degree one. In other words, in a nonlinear system of equations, the equation(s) to be solved cannot be written as a linear combination of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hyperbolic Equilibrium Point
In the study of dynamical systems, a hyperbolic equilibrium point or hyperbolic fixed point is a fixed point that does not have any center manifolds. Near a hyperbolic point the orbits of a twodimensional, nondissipative system resemble hyperbolas. This fails to hold in general. Strogatz notes that "hyperbolic is an unfortunate name—it sounds like it should mean ' saddle point'—but it has become standard." Several properties hold about a neighborhood of a hyperbolic point, notably * A stable manifold and an unstable manifold exist, * Shadowing occurs, * The dynamics on the invariant set can be represented via symbolic dynamics, * A natural measure can be defined, * The system is structurally stable. Maps If T \colon \mathbb^ \to \mathbb^ is a ''C''1 map and ''p'' is a fixed point then ''p'' is said to be a hyperbolic fixed point when the Jacobian matrix \operatorname T (p) has no eigenvalues on the unit circle. One example of a map whose only fixed point is hyper ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Stability Theory
In mathematics, stability theory addresses the stability of solutions of differential equations and of trajectories of dynamical systems under small perturbations of initial conditions. The heat equation, for example, is a stable partial differential equation because small perturbations of initial data lead to small variations in temperature at a later time as a result of the maximum principle. In partial differential equations one may measure the distances between functions using Lp norms or the sup norm, while in differential geometry one may measure the distance between spaces using the Gromov–Hausdorff distance. In dynamical systems, an orbit is called '' Lyapunov stable'' if the forward orbit of any point is in a small enough neighborhood or it stays in a small (but perhaps, larger) neighborhood. Various criteria have been developed to prove stability or instability of an orbit. Under favorable circumstances, the question may be reduced to a wellstudied problem invol ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear System
In systems theory, a linear system is a mathematical model of a system based on the use of a linear operator. Linear systems typically exhibit features and properties that are much simpler than the nonlinear case. As a mathematical abstraction or idealization, linear systems find important applications in automatic control theory, signal processing, and telecommunications. For example, the propagation medium for wireless communication systems can often be modeled by linear systems. Definition A general deterministic system can be described by an operator, that maps an input, as a function of to an output, a type of black box description. A system is linear if and only if it satisfies the superposition principle, or equivalently both the additivity and homogeneity properties, without restrictions (that is, for all inputs, all scaling constants and all time.) The superposition principle means that a linear combination of inputs to the system produces a linear combinat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equilibrium Point
In mathematics, specifically in differential equations, an equilibrium point is a constant solution to a differential equation. Formal definition The point \tilde\in \mathbb^n is an equilibrium point for the differential equation :\frac = \mathbf(t,\mathbf) if \mathbf(t,\tilde)=\mathbf for all t. Similarly, the point \tilde\in \mathbb^n is an equilibrium point (or fixed point) for the difference equation :\mathbf_ = \mathbf(k,\mathbf_k) if \mathbf(k,\tilde)= \tilde for k=0,1,2,\ldots. Equilibria can be classified by looking at the signs of the eigenvalues of the linearization of the equations about the equilibria. That is to say, by evaluating the Jacobian matrix at each of the equilibrium points of the system, and then finding the resulting eigenvalues, the equilibria can be categorized. Then the behavior of the system in the neighborhood of each equilibrium point can be qualitatively determined, (or even quantitatively determined, in some instances), by findin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Differential Equation
In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation that relates one or more unknown functions and their derivatives. In applications, the functions generally represent physical quantities, the derivatives represent their rates of change, and the differential equation defines a relationship between the two. Such relations are common; therefore, differential equations play a prominent role in many disciplines including engineering, physics, economics, and biology. Mainly the study of differential equations consists of the study of their solutions (the set of functions that satisfy each equation), and of the properties of their solutions. Only the simplest differential equations are solvable by explicit formulas; however, many properties of solutions of a given differential equation may be determined without computing them exactly. Often when a closedform expression for the solutions is not available, solutions may be approximated numerically using computers. The theory of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Derivative
In mathematics, the derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value). Derivatives are a fundamental tool of calculus. For example, the derivative of the position of a moving object with respect to time is the object's velocity: this measures how quickly the position of the object changes when time advances. The derivative of a function of a single variable at a chosen input value, when it exists, is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of the function at that point. The tangent line is the best linear approximation of the function near that input value. For this reason, the derivative is often described as the "instantaneous rate of change", the ratio of the instantaneous change in the dependent variable to that of the independent variable. Derivatives can be generalized to functions of several real variables. In this generalization, the de ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Jacobian Matrix And Determinant
In vector calculus, the Jacobian matrix (, ) of a vectorvalued function of several variables is the matrix of all its firstorder partial derivatives. When this matrix is square, that is, when the function takes the same number of variables as input as the number of vector components of its output, its determinant is referred to as the Jacobian determinant. Both the matrix and (if applicable) the determinant are often referred to simply as the Jacobian in literature. Suppose is a function such that each of its firstorder partial derivatives exist on . This function takes a point as input and produces the vector as output. Then the Jacobian matrix of is defined to be an matrix, denoted by , whose th entry is \mathbf J_ = \frac, or explicitly :\mathbf J = \begin \dfrac & \cdots & \dfrac \end = \begin \nabla^ f_1 \\ \vdots \\ \nabla^ f_m \end = \begin \dfrac & \cdots & \dfrac\\ \vdots & \ddots & \vdots\\ \dfrac & \cdot ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Autonomous System (mathematics)
In mathematics, an autonomous system or autonomous differential equation is a system of ordinary differential equations which does not explicitly depend on the independent variable. When the variable is time, they are also called timeinvariant systems. Many laws in physics, where the independent variable is usually assumed to be time, are expressed as autonomous systems because it is assumed the laws of nature which hold now are identical to those for any point in the past or future. Definition An autonomous system is a system of ordinary differential equations of the form \fracx(t)=f(x(t)) where takes values in dimensional Euclidean space; is often interpreted as time. It is distinguished from systems of differential equations of the form \fracx(t)=g(x(t),t) in which the law governing the evolution of the system does not depend solely on the system's current state but also the parameter , again often interpreted as time; such systems are by definition not autonomou ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Eigenvalue
In linear algebra, an eigenvector () or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a nonzero vector that changes at most by a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it. The corresponding eigenvalue, often denoted by \lambda, is the factor by which the eigenvector is scaled. Geometrically, an eigenvector, corresponding to a real nonzero eigenvalue, points in a direction in which it is stretched by the transformation and the eigenvalue is the factor by which it is stretched. If the eigenvalue is negative, the direction is reversed. Loosely speaking, in a multidimensional vector space, the eigenvector is not rotated. Formal definition If is a linear transformation from a vector space over a field into itself and is a nonzero vector in , then is an eigenvector of if is a scalar multiple of . This can be written as T(\mathbf) = \lambda \mathbf, where is a scalar in , known as the eigenvalue, characteristic value, or characteristic root a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 