Inverse Trigonometric Functions
In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions (occasionally also called arcus functions, antitrigonometric functions or cyclometric functions) are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions (with suitably restricted domains). Specifically, they are the inverses of the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant functions, and are used to obtain an angle from any of the angle's trigonometric ratios. Inverse trigonometric functions are widely used in engineering, navigation, physics, and geometry. Notation Several notations for the inverse trigonometric functions exist. The most common convention is to name inverse trigonometric functions using an arc prefix: , , , etc. (This convention is used throughout this article.) This notation arises from the following geometric relationships: when measuring in radians, an angle of ''θ'' radians will correspond to an arc whose length is ''rθ'', where ''r'' is the radius of the circle. Thus in the unit circl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multivalued Function
In mathematics, a multivalued function, also called multifunction, manyvalued function, setvalued function, is similar to a function, but may associate several values to each input. More precisely, a multivalued function from a domain to a codomain associates each in to one or more values in ; it is thus a serial binary relation. Some authors allow a multivalued function to have no value for some inputs (in this case a multivalued function is simply a binary relation). However, in some contexts such as in complex analysis (''X'' = ''Y'' = C), authors prefer to mimic function theory as they extend concepts of the ordinary (singlevalued) functions. In this context, an ordinary function is often called a singlevalued function to avoid confusion. The term ''multivalued function'' originated in complex analysis, from analytic continuation. It often occurs that one knows the value of a complex analytic function f(z) in some neighbourhood of a point z=a. This is the case ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Radian
The radian, denoted by the symbol rad, is the unit of angle in the International System of Units (SI) and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics. The unit was formerly an SI supplementary unit (before that category was abolished in 1995). The radian is defined in the SI as being a dimensionless unit, with 1 rad = 1. Its symbol is accordingly often omitted, especially in mathematical writing. Definition One radian is defined as the angle subtended from the center of a circle which intercepts an arc equal in length to the radius of the circle. More generally, the magnitude in radians of a subtended angle is equal to the ratio of the arc length to the radius of the circle; that is, \theta = \frac, where is the subtended angle in radians, is arc length, and is radius. A right angle is exactly \frac radians. The rotation angle (360°) corresponding to one complete revolution is the length of the circumference divided by the radius, whi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Principal Value
In mathematics, specifically complex analysis, the principal values of a multivalued function are the values along one chosen branch of that function, so that it is singlevalued. The simplest case arises in taking the square root of a positive real number. For example, 4 has two square roots: 2 and −2; of these the positive root, 2, is considered the principal root and is denoted as \sqrt. Motivation Consider the complex logarithm function log ''z''. It is defined as the complex number ''w'' such that :e^w = z. Now, for example, say we wish to find log ''i''. This means we want to solve :e^w = i for ''w''. Clearly ''i''π/2 is a solution. But is it the only solution? Of course, there are other solutions, which is evidenced by considering the position of ''i'' in the complex plane and in particular its argument arg ''i''. We can rotate counterclockwise π/2 radians from 1 to reach ''i'' initially, but if we rotate further another 2π we reach ''i'' again. S ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Principal Branch
In mathematics, a principal branch is a function which selects one branch ("slice") of a multivalued function. Most often, this applies to functions defined on the complex plane. Examples Trigonometric inverses Principal branches are used in the definition of many inverse trigonometric functions, such as the selection either to define that :\arcsin:1,+1rightarrow\left \frac,\frac\right/math> or that :\arccos:1,+1rightarrow ,\pi/math>. Exponentiation to fractional powers A more familiar principal branch function, limited to real numbers, is that of a positive real number raised to the power of . For example, take the relation , where is any positive real number. This relation can be satisfied by any value of equal to a square root of (either positive or negative). By convention, is used to denote the positive square root of . In this instance, the positive square root function is taken as the principal branch of the multivalued relation . Complex logarithms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Countably Infinite
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbers; this means that each element in the set may be associated to a unique natural number, or that the elements of the set can be counted one at a time, although the counting may never finish due to an infinite number of elements. In more technical terms, assuming the axiom of countable choice, a set is ''countable'' if its cardinality (its number of elements) is not greater than that of the natural numbers. A countable set that is not finite is said countably infinite. The concept is attributed to Georg Cantor, who proved the existence of uncountable sets, that is, sets that are not countable; for example the set of the real numbers. A note on terminology Although the terms "countable" and "countably infinite" as defined here are quite ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Square Root
In mathematics, a square root of a number is a number such that ; in other words, a number whose ''square'' (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or ⋅ ) is . For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16, because . Every nonnegative real number has a unique nonnegative square root, called the ''principal square root'', which is denoted by \sqrt, where the symbol \sqrt is called the '' radical sign'' or ''radix''. For example, to express the fact that the principal square root of 9 is 3, we write \sqrt = 3. The term (or number) whose square root is being considered is known as the ''radicand''. The radicand is the number or expression underneath the radical sign, in this case 9. For nonnegative , the principal square root can also be written in exponent notation, as . Every positive number has two square roots: \sqrt, which is positive, and \sqrt, which is negative. The two roots can be written more concisely using the ± sign as \plusmn\sq ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multivalued Function
In mathematics, a multivalued function, also called multifunction, manyvalued function, setvalued function, is similar to a function, but may associate several values to each input. More precisely, a multivalued function from a domain to a codomain associates each in to one or more values in ; it is thus a serial binary relation. Some authors allow a multivalued function to have no value for some inputs (in this case a multivalued function is simply a binary relation). However, in some contexts such as in complex analysis (''X'' = ''Y'' = C), authors prefer to mimic function theory as they extend concepts of the ordinary (singlevalued) functions. In this context, an ordinary function is often called a singlevalued function to avoid confusion. The term ''multivalued function'' originated in complex analysis, from analytic continuation. It often occurs that one knows the value of a complex analytic function f(z) in some neighbourhood of a point z=a. This is the case ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subset
In mathematics, set ''A'' is a subset of a set ''B'' if all elements of ''A'' are also elements of ''B''; ''B'' is then a superset of ''A''. It is possible for ''A'' and ''B'' to be equal; if they are unequal, then ''A'' is a proper subset of ''B''. The relationship of one set being a subset of another is called inclusion (or sometimes containment). ''A'' is a subset of ''B'' may also be expressed as ''B'' includes (or contains) ''A'' or ''A'' is included (or contained) in ''B''. A ''k''subset is a subset with ''k'' elements. The subset relation defines a partial order on sets. In fact, the subsets of a given set form a Boolean algebra under the subset relation, in which the join and meet are given by intersection and union, and the subset relation itself is the Boolean inclusion relation. Definition If ''A'' and ''B'' are sets and every element of ''A'' is also an element of ''B'', then: :*''A'' is a subset of ''B'', denoted by A \subseteq B, or equivalently, :* ''B'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Range Of A Function
In mathematics, the range of a function may refer to either of two closely related concepts: * The codomain of the function * The image of the function Given two sets and , a binary relation between and is a (total) function (from to ) if for every in there is exactly one in such that relates to . The sets and are called domain and codomain of , respectively. The image of is then the subset of consisting of only those elements of such that there is at least one in with . Terminology As the term "range" can have different meanings, it is considered a good practice to define it the first time it is used in a textbook or article. Older books, when they use the word "range", tend to use it to mean what is now called the codomain. More modern books, if they use the word "range" at all, generally use it to mean what is now called the image. To avoid any confusion, a number of modern books don't use the word "range" at all. Elaboration and example Given a funct ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Onetoone Function
In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or onetoone function) is a function that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, implies . (Equivalently, implies in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain. A homomorphism between algebraic structures is a function that is compatible with the operations of the structures. For all common algebraic structures, and, in particular for vector spaces, an is also called a . However, in the more general context of category theory, the definition of a monomorphism differs from that of an injective homomorphism. This is thus a theorem that they are equivalent for algebraic structures; see for more details. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 