Inverse Function
In mathematics, the inverse function of a function (also called the inverse of ) is a function that undoes the operation of . The inverse of exists if and only if is bijective, and if it exists, is denoted by f^ . For a function f\colon X\to Y, its inverse f^\colon Y\to X admits an explicit description: it sends each element y\in Y to the unique element x\in X such that . As an example, consider the realvalued function of a real variable given by . One can think of as the function which multiplies its input by 5 then subtracts 7 from the result. To undo this, one adds 7 to the input, then divides the result by 5. Therefore, the inverse of is the function f^\colon \R\to\R defined by f^(y) = \frac . Definitions Let be a function whose domain is the set , and whose codomain is the set . Then is ''invertible'' if there exists a function from to such that g(f(x))=x for all x\in X and f(g(y))=y for all y\in Y. If is invertible, then there is exactly one function ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Inverse Function
In mathematics, the inverse function of a function (also called the inverse of ) is a function that undoes the operation of . The inverse of exists if and only if is bijective, and if it exists, is denoted by f^ . For a function f\colon X\to Y, its inverse f^\colon Y\to X admits an explicit description: it sends each element y\in Y to the unique element x\in X such that . As an example, consider the realvalued function of a real variable given by . One can think of as the function which multiplies its input by 5 then subtracts 7 from the result. To undo this, one adds 7 to the input, then divides the result by 5. Therefore, the inverse of is the function f^\colon \R\to\R defined by f^(y) = \frac . Definitions Let be a function whose domain is the set , and whose codomain is the set . Then is ''invertible'' if there exists a function from to such that g(f(x))=x for all x\in X and f(g(y))=y for all y\in Y. If is invertible, then there is exactly one function ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Iterated Function
In mathematics, an iterated function is a function (that is, a function from some set to itself) which is obtained by composing another function with itself a certain number of times. The process of repeatedly applying the same function is called iteration. In this process, starting from some initial object, the result of applying a given function is fed again in the function as input, and this process is repeated. For example on the image on the right: :with the circle‑shaped symbol of function composition. Iterated functions are objects of study in computer science, fractals, dynamical systems, mathematics and renormalization group physics. Definition The formal definition of an iterated function on a set ''X'' follows. Let be a set and be a function. Defining as the ''n''th iterate of (a notation introduced by Hans Heinrich Bürmann and John Frederick William Herschel), where ''n'' is a nonnegative integer, by: f^0 ~ \stackrel ~ \operatorname_ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematics, mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus; the former concerns instantaneous Rate of change (mathematics), rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while the latter concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves. These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus, and they make use of the fundamental notions of convergence (mathematics), convergence of infinite sequences and Series (mathematics), infinite series to a welldefined limit (mathematics), limit. Infinitesimal calculus was developed independently in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Later work, including (ε, δ)definition of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Set Theory
Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, is mostly concerned with those that are relevant to mathematics as a whole. The modern study of set theory was initiated by the German mathematicians Richard Dedekind and Georg Cantor in the 1870s. In particular, Georg Cantor is commonly considered the founder of set theory. The nonformalized systems investigated during this early stage go under the name of '' naive set theory''. After the discovery of paradoxes within naive set theory (such as Russell's paradox, Cantor's paradox and the BuraliForti paradox) various axiomatic systems were proposed in the early twentieth century, of which Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (with or without the axiom of choice) is still the bestknown and most studied. Set theory is commonly employed as a foundational ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multivalued Function
In mathematics, a multivalued function, also called multifunction, manyvalued function, setvalued function, is similar to a function, but may associate several values to each input. More precisely, a multivalued function from a domain to a codomain associates each in to one or more values in ; it is thus a serial binary relation. Some authors allow a multivalued function to have no value for some inputs (in this case a multivalued function is simply a binary relation). However, in some contexts such as in complex analysis (''X'' = ''Y'' = C), authors prefer to mimic function theory as they extend concepts of the ordinary (singlevalued) functions. In this context, an ordinary function is often called a singlevalued function to avoid confusion. The term ''multivalued function'' originated in complex analysis, from analytic continuation. It often occurs that one knows the value of a complex analytic function f(z) in some neighbourhood of a point z=a. This is the case ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Arsinh
In mathematics, the inverse hyperbolic functions are the inverse functions of the hyperbolic functions. For a given value of a hyperbolic function, the corresponding inverse hyperbolic function provides the corresponding hyperbolic angle. The size of the hyperbolic angle is equal to the area of the corresponding hyperbolic sector of the hyperbola , or twice the area of the corresponding sector of the unit hyperbola , just as a circular angle is twice the area of the circular sector of the unit circle. Some authors have called inverse hyperbolic functions "area functions" to realize the hyperbolic angles. Hyperbolic functions occur in the calculations of angles and distances in hyperbolic geometry. It also occurs in the solutions of many linear differential equations (such as the equation defining a catenary), cubic equations, and Laplace's equation in Cartesian coordinates. Laplace's equations are important in many areas of physics, including electromagnetic theory, heat tra ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hyperbolic Sine
In mathematics, hyperbolic functions are analogues of the ordinary trigonometric functions, but defined using the hyperbola rather than the circle. Just as the points form a circle with a unit radius, the points form the right half of the unit hyperbola. Also, similarly to how the derivatives of and are and respectively, the derivatives of and are and respectively. Hyperbolic functions occur in the calculations of angles and distances in hyperbolic geometry. They also occur in the solutions of many linear differential equations (such as the equation defining a catenary), cubic equations, and Laplace's equation in Cartesian coordinates. Laplace's equations are important in many areas of physics, including electromagnetic theory, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and special relativity. The basic hyperbolic functions are: * hyperbolic sine "" (), * hyperbolic cosine "" (),''Collins Concise Dictionary'', p. 328 from which are derived: * hyperbolic tangent "" (), * hyperb ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ar (function Prefix)
AR, Ar, or A&R may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Music * Artists and repertoire Periodicals * ''Absolute Return + Alpha'', a hedge fund publication *''The Adelaide Review'', an Australian arts magazine * ''American Renaissance'' (magazine), a white nationalist magazine and website * ''Architectural Review'', a British architectural journal * ''Armeerundschau'', a magazine of the East German army Other media * Ar, city on the fictional planet Gor * ''a.r.'' group of Polish artists and poets, including Katarzyna Kobro * Alternate reality (other), various fictional concepts Business * Accounts receivable, abbreviated as AR or A/R * Acoustic Research, an American audio electronics manufacturer * Aerojet Rocketdyne, an American aerospace and defense manufacturer * Aerolíneas Argentinas (IATA airline code AR) * Some Alfa Romeo car models, e.g. AR51 * Toyota AR engine Language * ''Ar'', the Latin letter R when spelled out * Ar (cuneiform), a cuneiform combine ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hyperbolic Function
In mathematics, hyperbolic functions are analogues of the ordinary trigonometric functions, but defined using the hyperbola rather than the circle. Just as the points form a circle with a unit radius, the points form the right half of the unit hyperbola. Also, similarly to how the derivatives of and are and respectively, the derivatives of and are and respectively. Hyperbolic functions occur in the calculations of angles and distances in hyperbolic geometry. They also occur in the solutions of many linear differential equations (such as the equation defining a catenary), cubic equations, and Laplace's equation in Cartesian coordinates. Laplace's equations are important in many areas of physics, including electromagnetic theory, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and special relativity. The basic hyperbolic functions are: * hyperbolic sine "" (), * hyperbolic cosine "" (),''Collins Concise Dictionary'', p. 328 from which are derived: * hyperbolic tangent "" (), * ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Arcsin
In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions (occasionally also called arcus functions, antitrigonometric functions or cyclometric functions) are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions (with suitably restricted Domain of a function, domains). Specifically, they are the inverses of the sine, cosine, tangent (trigonometry), tangent, cotangent, secant (trigonometry), secant, and cosecant functions, and are used to obtain an angle from any of the angle's trigonometric ratios. Inverse trigonometric functions are widely used in engineering, navigation, physics, and geometry. Notation Several notations for the inverse trigonometric functions exist. The most common convention is to name inverse trigonometric functions using an arc prefix: , , , etc. (This convention is used throughout this article.) This notation arises from the following geometric relationships: when measuring in radians, an angle of ''θ'' radians will correspond to an arc whose length is ''rθ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Arcsine
In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions (occasionally also called arcus functions, antitrigonometric functions or cyclometric functions) are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions (with suitably restricted domains). Specifically, they are the inverses of the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant functions, and are used to obtain an angle from any of the angle's trigonometric ratios. Inverse trigonometric functions are widely used in engineering, navigation, physics, and geometry. Notation Several notations for the inverse trigonometric functions exist. The most common convention is to name inverse trigonometric functions using an arc prefix: , , , etc. (This convention is used throughout this article.) This notation arises from the following geometric relationships: when measuring in radians, an angle of ''θ'' radians will correspond to an arc whose length is ''rθ'', where ''r'' is the radius of the circle. Thus in the unit circl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Arc (function Prefix)
In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions (occasionally also called arcus functions, antitrigonometric functions or cyclometric functions) are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions (with suitably restricted domains). Specifically, they are the inverses of the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant functions, and are used to obtain an angle from any of the angle's trigonometric ratios. Inverse trigonometric functions are widely used in engineering, navigation, physics, and geometry. Notation Several notations for the inverse trigonometric functions exist. The most common convention is to name inverse trigonometric functions using an arc prefix: , , , etc. (This convention is used throughout this article.) This notation arises from the following geometric relationships: when measuring in radians, an angle of ''θ'' radians will correspond to an arc whose length is ''rθ'', where ''r'' is the radius of the circle. Thus in the unit circl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 