Integrability Conditions For Differential Systems
In mathematics, certain systems of partial differential equations are usefully formulated, from the point of view of their underlying geometric and algebraic structure, in terms of a system of differential forms. The idea is to take advantage of the way a differential form ''restricts'' to a submanifold, and the fact that this restriction is compatible with the exterior derivative. This is one possible approach to certain overdetermined systems, for example, including Lax pairs of integrable systems. A Pfaffian system is specified by 1forms alone, but the theory includes other types of example of differential system. To elaborate, a Pfaffian system is a set of 1forms on a smooth manifold (which one sets equal to 0 to find ''solutions'' to the system). Given a collection of differential 1forms \textstyle\alpha_i, i=1,2,\dots, k on an \textstyle ndimensional manifold M, an integral manifold is an immersed (not necessarily embedded) submanifold whose tangent space at every point ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coframe
In mathematics, a coframe or coframe field on a smooth manifold M is a system of oneforms or covectors which form a basis of the cotangent bundle at every point. In the exterior algebra of M, one has a natural map from v_k:\bigoplus^kT^*M\to\bigwedge^kT^*M, given by v_k:(\rho_1,\ldots,\rho_k)\mapsto \rho_1\wedge\ldots\wedge\rho_k. If M is n dimensional a coframe is given by a section \sigma of \bigoplus^nT^*M such that v_n\circ\sigma\neq 0. The inverse image under v_n of the complement of the zero section of \bigwedge^nT^*M forms a GL(n) principal bundle over M, which is called the coframe bundle. References * See also * Frame fields in general relativity * Moving frame In mathematics, a moving frame is a flexible generalization of the notion of an ordered basis of a vector space often used to study the extrinsic differential geometry of smooth manifolds embedded in a homogeneous space. Introduction In lay te ... Differential geometry {{differentialgeome ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partial Differential Equations
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is an equation which imposes relations between the various partial derivatives of a multivariable function. The function is often thought of as an "unknown" to be solved for, similarly to how is thought of as an unknown number to be solved for in an algebraic equation like . However, it is usually impossible to write down explicit formulas for solutions of partial differential equations. There is, correspondingly, a vast amount of modern mathematical and scientific research on methods to numerically approximate solutions of certain partial differential equations using computers. Partial differential equations also occupy a large sector of pure mathematical research, in which the usual questions are, broadly speaking, on the identification of general qualitative features of solutions of various partial differential equations, such as existence, uniqueness, regularity, and stability. Among the many open questions are the e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Almost Complex Manifold
In mathematics, an almost complex manifold is a smooth manifold equipped with a smooth linear complex structure on each tangent space. Every complex manifold is an almost complex manifold, but there are almost complex manifolds that are not complex manifolds. Almost complex structures have important applications in symplectic geometry. The concept is due to Charles Ehresmann and Heinz Hopf in the 1940s. Formal definition Let ''M'' be a smooth manifold. An almost complex structure ''J'' on ''M'' is a linear complex structure (that is, a linear map which squares to −1) on each tangent space of the manifold, which varies smoothly on the manifold. In other words, we have a smooth tensor field ''J'' of degree such that J^2=1 when regarded as a vector bundle isomorphism J\colon TM\to TM on the tangent bundle. A manifold equipped with an almost complex structure is called an almost complex manifold. If ''M'' admits an almost complex structure, it must be evendimensional. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cartan–Kuranishi Prolongation Theorem
Given an exterior differential system defined on a manifold ''M'', the Cartan–Kuranishi prolongation theorem says that after a finite number of ''prolongations'' the system is either ''in involution'' (admits at least one 'large' integral manifold), or is impossible. History The theorem is named after Élie Cartan and Masatake Kuranishi. Applications This theorem is used in infinitedimensional Lie theory In mathematics, the mathematician Sophus Lie ( ) initiated lines of study involving integration of differential equations, transformation groups, and contact of spheres that have come to be called Lie theory. For instance, the latter subject is .... See also * CartanKähler theorem References * M. Kuranishi, ''On É. Cartan's prolongation theorem of exterior differential systems'', Amer. J. Math., vol. 79, 1957, p. 1–47 * {{DEFAULTSORT:CartanKuranishi prolongation theorem Partial differential equations Theorems in analysis ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Analysis
In mathematics, the branch of real analysis studies the behavior of real numbers, sequences and series of real numbers, and real functions. Some particular properties of realvalued sequences and functions that real analysis studies include convergence, limits, continuity, smoothness, differentiability and integrability. Real analysis is distinguished from complex analysis, which deals with the study of complex numbers and their functions. Scope Construction of the real numbers The theorems of real analysis rely on the properties of the real number system, which must be established. The real number system consists of an uncountable set (\mathbb), together with two binary operations denoted and , and an order denoted . The operations make the real numbers a field, and, along with the order, an ordered field. The real number system is the unique ''complete ordered field'', in the sense that any other complete ordered field is isomorphic to it. Intuitively, completeness ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cartan–Kähler Theorem
In mathematics, the Cartan–Kähler theorem is a major result on the integrability conditions for differential systems, in the case of analytic functions, for differential ideals I. It is named for Élie Cartan and Erich Kähler. Meaning It is not true that merely having dI contained in I is sufficient for integrability. There is a problem caused by singular solutions. The theorem computes certain constants that must satisfy an inequality in order that there be a solution. Statement Let (M,I) be a real analytic EDS. Assume that P \subseteq M is a connected, ''k''dimensional, real analytic, regular integral manifold of ''I'' with r(P) \geq 0 (i.e., the tangent spaces T_p P are "extendable" to higher dimensional integral elements). Moreover, assume there is a real analytic submanifold R \subseteq M of codimension r(P) containing P and such that T_pR \cap H(T_pP) has dimension k+1 for all p \in P. Then there exists a (locally) unique connected, (k+1)dimensional, real analytic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Curvature
In mathematics, curvature is any of several strongly related concepts in geometry. Intuitively, the curvature is the amount by which a curve deviates from being a straight line, or a surface deviates from being a plane. For curves, the canonical example is that of a circle, which has a curvature equal to the reciprocal of its radius. Smaller circles bend more sharply, and hence have higher curvature. The curvature ''at a point'' of a differentiable curve is the curvature of its osculating circle, that is the circle that best approximates the curve near this point. The curvature of a straight line is zero. In contrast to the tangent, which is a vector quantity, the curvature at a point is typically a scalar quantity, that is, it is expressed by a single real number. For surfaces (and, more generally for higherdimensional manifolds), that are embedded in a Euclidean space, the concept of curvature is more complex, as it depends on the choice of a direction on the surfa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Orthogonal Group
In mathematics, the orthogonal group in dimension , denoted , is the group of distancepreserving transformations of a Euclidean space of dimension that preserve a fixed point, where the group operation is given by composing transformations. The orthogonal group is sometimes called the general orthogonal group, by analogy with the general linear group. Equivalently, it is the group of orthogonal matrices, where the group operation is given by matrix multiplication (an orthogonal matrix is a real matrix whose inverse equals its transpose). The orthogonal group is an algebraic group and a Lie group. It is compact. The orthogonal group in dimension has two connected components. The one that contains the identity element is a normal subgroup, called the special orthogonal group, and denoted . It consists of all orthogonal matrices of determinant . This group is also called the rotation group, generalizing the fact that in dimensions 2 and 3, its elements are the usual ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Maurer–Cartan Form
In mathematics, the Maurer–Cartan form for a Lie group is a distinguished differential oneform on that carries the basic infinitesimal information about the structure of . It was much used by Élie Cartan as a basic ingredient of his method of moving frames, and bears his name together with that of Ludwig Maurer. As a oneform, the Maurer–Cartan form is peculiar in that it takes its values in the Lie algebra associated to the Lie group . The Lie algebra is identified with the tangent space of at the identity, denoted . The Maurer–Cartan form is thus a oneform defined globally on which is a linear mapping of the tangent space at each into . It is given as the pushforward of a vector in along the lefttranslation in the group: :\omega(v) = (L_)_* v,\quad v\in T_gG. Motivation and interpretation A Lie group acts on itself by multiplication under the mapping :G\times G \ni (g,h) \mapsto gh \in G. A question of importance to Cartan and his contempora ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Frame Bundle
In mathematics, a frame bundle is a principal fiber bundle F(''E'') associated to any vector bundle ''E''. The fiber of F(''E'') over a point ''x'' is the set of all ordered bases, or ''frames'', for ''E''''x''. The general linear group acts naturally on F(''E'') via a change of basis, giving the frame bundle the structure of a principal GL(''k'', R)bundle (where ''k'' is the rank of ''E''). The frame bundle of a smooth manifold is the one associated to its tangent bundle. For this reason it is sometimes called the tangent frame bundle. Definition and construction Let ''E'' → ''X'' be a real vector bundle of rank ''k'' over a topological space ''X''. A frame at a point ''x'' ∈ ''X'' is an ordered basis for the vector space ''E''''x''. Equivalently, a frame can be viewed as a linear isomorphism :p : \mathbf^k \to E_x. The set of all frames at ''x'', denoted ''F''''x'', has a natural right action by the general linear group GL(''k'', R) of invertible ''k'' × ''k'' matr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Poincaré Lemma
In mathematics, especially vector calculus and differential topology, a closed form is a differential form ''α'' whose exterior derivative is zero (), and an exact form is a differential form, ''α'', that is the exterior derivative of another differential form ''β''. Thus, an ''exact'' form is in the ''image'' of ''d'', and a ''closed'' form is in the ''kernel'' of ''d''. For an exact form ''α'', for some differential form ''β'' of degree one less than that of ''α''. The form ''β'' is called a "potential form" or "primitive" for ''α''. Since the exterior derivative of a closed form is zero, ''β'' is not unique, but can be modified by the addition of any closed form of degree one less than that of ''α''. Because , every exact form is necessarily closed. The question of whether ''every'' closed form is exact depends on the topology of the domain of interest. On a contractible domain, every closed form is exact by the Poincaré lemma. More general questions of this kind o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 