Homogeneous Polynomial
In mathematics, a homogeneous polynomial, sometimes called quantic in older texts, is a polynomial whose nonzero terms all have the same degree. For example, x^5 + 2 x^3 y^2 + 9 x y^4 is a homogeneous polynomial of degree 5, in two variables; the sum of the exponents in each term is always 5. The polynomial x^3 + 3 x^2 y + z^7 is not homogeneous, because the sum of exponents does not match from term to term. The function defined by a homogeneous polynomial is always a homogeneous function. An algebraic form, or simply form, is a function defined by a homogeneous polynomial. A binary form is a form in two variables. A ''form'' is also a function defined on a vector space, which may be expressed as a homogeneous function of the coordinates over any basis. A polynomial of degree 0 is always homogeneous; it is simply an element of the field or ring of the coefficients, usually called a constant or a scalar. A form of degree 1 is a linear form. A form of degree 2 is a qua ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multivariate Polynomial
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of indeterminates (also called variables) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and positiveinteger powers of variables. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate is . An example with three indeterminates is . Polynomials appear in many areas of mathematics and science. For example, they are used to form polynomial equations, which encode a wide range of problems, from elementary word problems to complicated scientific problems; they are used to define polynomial functions, which appear in settings ranging from basic chemistry and physics to economics and social science; they are used in calculus and numerical analysis to approximate other functions. In advanced mathematics, polynomials are used to construct polynomial rings and algebraic varieties, which are central concepts in algebra and algebraic geometry. Etymology The word ''polynomial'' joins t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quasihomogeneous Polynomial
In algebra, a multivariate polynomial : f(x)=\sum_\alpha a_\alpha x^\alpha\text\alpha=(i_1,\dots,i_r)\in \mathbb^r \text x^\alpha=x_1^ \cdots x_r^, is quasihomogeneous or weighted homogeneous, if there exist ''r'' integers w_1, \ldots, w_r, called weights of the variables, such that the sum w=w_1i_1+ \cdots + w_ri_r is the same for all nonzero terms of . This sum is the ''weight'' or the ''degree'' of the polynomial. The term ''quasihomogeneous'' comes from the fact that a polynomial is quasihomogeneous if and only if : f(\lambda^ x_1, \ldots, \lambda^ x_r)=\lambda^w f(x_1,\ldots, x_r) for every \lambda in any field containing the coefficients. A polynomial f(x_1, \ldots, x_n) is quasihomogeneous with weights w_1, \ldots, w_r if and only if :f(y_1^, \ldots, y_n^) is a homogeneous polynomial in the y_i. In particular, a homogeneous polynomial is always quasihomogeneous, with all weights equal to 1. A polynomial is quasihomogeneous if and only if all the \alpha belong t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Formal Derivative
In mathematics, the formal derivative is an operation on elements of a polynomial ring or a ring of formal power series that mimics the form of the derivative from calculus. Though they appear similar, the algebraic advantage of a formal derivative is that it does not rely on the notion of a limit, which is in general impossible to define for a ring. Many of the properties of the derivative are true of the formal derivative, but some, especially those that make numerical statements, are not. Formal differentiation is used in algebra to test for multiple roots of a polynomial. Definition The definition of formal derivative is as follows: fix a ring ''R'' (not necessarily commutative) and let ''A'' = ''R'' 'x''be the ring of polynomials over ''R''. Then the formal derivative is an operation on elements of ''A'', where if :f(x)\,=\,a_n x^n + \cdots + a_1 x + a_0, then its formal derivative is :f'(x)\,=\,Df(x) = n a_n x^ + \cdots + 2 a_2 x + a_1, just as for polynomials over ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Commutative Ring
In mathematics, a commutative ring is a ring in which the multiplication operation is commutative. The study of commutative rings is called commutative algebra. Complementarily, noncommutative algebra is the study of ring properties that are not specific to commutative rings. This distinction results from the high number of fundamental properties of commutative rings that do not extend to noncommutative rings. Definition and first examples Definition A ''ring'' is a set R equipped with two binary operations, i.e. operations combining any two elements of the ring to a third. They are called ''addition'' and ''multiplication'' and commonly denoted by "+" and "\cdot"; e.g. a+b and a \cdot b. To form a ring these two operations have to satisfy a number of properties: the ring has to be an abelian group under addition as well as a monoid under multiplication, where multiplication distributes over addition; i.e., a \cdot \left(b + c\right) = \left(a \cdot b\right) + \left(a \c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euler's Homogeneous Function Theorem
In mathematics, a homogeneous function is a function of several variables such that, if all its arguments are multiplied by a scalar, then its value is multiplied by some power of this scalar, called the degree of homogeneity, or simply the ''degree''; that is, if is an integer, a function of variables is homogeneous of degree if :f(sx_1,\ldots, sx_n)=s^k f(x_1,\ldots, x_n) for every x_1, \ldots, x_n, and s\ne 0. For example, a homogeneous polynomial of degree defines a homogeneous function of degree . The above definition extends to functions whose domain and codomain are vector spaces over a field : a function f : V \to W between two vector spaces is ''homogeneous'' of degree k if for all nonzero s \in F and v \in V. This definition is often further generalized to functions whose domain is not , but a cone in , that is, a subset of such that \mathbf\in C implies s\mathbf\in C for every nonzero scalar . In the case of functions of several real variables and rea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Binomial Coefficient
In mathematics, the binomial coefficients are the positive integers that occur as coefficients in the binomial theorem. Commonly, a binomial coefficient is indexed by a pair of integers and is written \tbinom. It is the coefficient of the term in the polynomial expansion of the binomial power ; this coefficient can be computed by the multiplicative formula :\binom nk = \frac, which using factorial notation can be compactly expressed as :\binom = \frac. For example, the fourth power of is :\begin (1 + x)^4 &= \tbinom x^0 + \tbinom x^1 + \tbinom x^2 + \tbinom x^3 + \tbinom x^4 \\ &= 1 + 4x + 6 x^2 + 4x^3 + x^4, \end and the binomial coefficient \tbinom =\tfrac = \tfrac = 6 is the coefficient of the term. Arranging the numbers \tbinom, \tbinom, \ldots, \tbinom in successive rows for n=0,1,2,\ldots gives a triangular array called Pascal's triangle, satisfying the recurrence relation :\binom = \binom + \binom. The binomial coefficients occur in many areas of mathematics, a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Module
In mathematics, a free module is a module that has a basis – that is, a generating set consisting of linearly independent elements. Every vector space is a free module, but, if the ring of the coefficients is not a division ring (not a field in the commutative case), then there exist nonfree modules. Given any set and ring , there is a free module with basis , which is called the ''free module on'' or ''module of formal'' ''linear combinations'' of the elements of . A free abelian group is precisely a free module over the ring of integers. Definition For a ring R and an Rmodule M, the set E\subseteq M is a basis for M if: * E is a generating set for M; that is to say, every element of M is a finite sum of elements of E multiplied by coefficients in R; and * E is linearly independent, that is, for every subset \ of distinct elements of E, r_1 e_1 + r_2 e_2 + \cdots + r_n e_n = 0_M implies that r_1 = r_2 = \cdots = r_n = 0_R (where 0_M is the zero element of M a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nonnegative Integer
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). Numbers used for counting are called '' cardinal numbers'', and numbers used for ordering are called '' ordinal numbers''. Natural numbers are sometimes used as labels, known as '' nominal numbers'', having none of the properties of numbers in a mathematical sense (e.g. sports jersey numbers). Some definitions, including the standard ISO 800002, begin the natural numbers with , corresponding to the nonnegative integers , whereas others start with , corresponding to the positive integers Texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the whole numbers, while in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers (including negative integers). The natural numbers form a set. Many other number sets are built by suc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Direct Sum
The direct sum is an operation between structures in abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics. It is defined differently, but analogously, for different kinds of structures. To see how the direct sum is used in abstract algebra, consider a more elementary kind of structure, the abelian group. The direct sum of two abelian groups A and B is another abelian group A\oplus B consisting of the ordered pairs (a,b) where a \in A and b \in B. To add ordered pairs, we define the sum (a, b) + (c, d) to be (a + c, b + d); in other words addition is defined coordinatewise. For example, the direct sum \Reals \oplus \Reals , where \Reals is real coordinate space, is the Cartesian plane, \R ^2 . A similar process can be used to form the direct sum of two vector spaces or two modules. We can also form direct sums with any finite number of summands, for example A \oplus B \oplus C, provided A, B, and C are the same kinds of algebraic structures (e.g., all abelian groups, or all vector sp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Module (mathematics)
In mathematics, a module is a generalization of the notion of vector space in which the field of scalars is replaced by a ring. The concept of ''module'' generalizes also the notion of abelian group, since the abelian groups are exactly the modules over the ring of integers. Like a vector space, a module is an additive abelian group, and scalar multiplication is distributive over the operation of addition between elements of the ring or module and is compatible with the ring multiplication. Modules are very closely related to the representation theory of groups. They are also one of the central notions of commutative algebra and homological algebra, and are used widely in algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Introduction and definition Motivation In a vector space, the set of scalars is a field and acts on the vectors by scalar multiplication, subject to certain axioms such as the distributive law. In a module, the scalars need only be a ring, so the m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 