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Haar Measure
In mathematical analysis, the Haar measure assigns an "invariant volume" to subsets of locally compact topological groups, consequently defining an integral for functions on those groups. This measure was introduced by Alfréd Haar in 1933, though its special case for Lie groups had been introduced by Adolf Hurwitz in 1897 under the name "invariant integral". Haar measures are used in many parts of analysis, number theory, group theory, representation theory, statistics, probability theory, and ergodic theory. Preliminaries Let (G, \cdot) be a locally compact Hausdorff topological group. The \sigma-algebra generated by all open subsets of G is called the Borel algebra. An element of the Borel algebra is called a Borel set. If g is an element of G and S is a subset of G, then we define the left and right translates of S by ''g'' as follows: * Left translate: g S = \. * Right translate: S g = \. Left and right translates map Borel sets onto Borel sets. A measure \mu ...
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Mathematical Analysis
Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with continuous functions, limits, and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite sequences, series, and analytic functions. These theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers and functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space). History Ancient Mathematical analysis formally developed in the 17th century during the Scientific Revolution, but many of its ideas can be traced back to earlier mathematicians. Early results in analysis were implicitly present in the early days of ancient Greek mathematics. For instance, an infinite geometric sum is implicit in Zeno's paradox of the di ...
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Real Line
In elementary mathematics, a number line is a picture of a graduated straight line that serves as visual representation of the real numbers. Every point of a number line is assumed to correspond to a real number, and every real number to a point. The integers are often shown as specially-marked points evenly spaced on the line. Although the image only shows the integers from –3 to 3, the line includes all real numbers, continuing forever in each direction, and also numbers that are between the integers. It is often used as an aid in teaching simple addition and subtraction, especially involving negative numbers. In advanced mathematics, the number line can be called as a real line or real number line, formally defined as the set of all real numbers, viewed as a geometric space, namely the Euclidean space of dimension one. It can be thought of as a vector space (or affine space), a metric space, a topological space, a measure space, or a linear continuum. Just like ...
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Unit Circle
In mathematics, a unit circle is a circle of unit radius—that is, a radius of 1. Frequently, especially in trigonometry, the unit circle is the circle of radius 1 centered at the origin (0, 0) in the Cartesian coordinate system in the Euclidean plane. In topology, it is often denoted as because it is a one-dimensional unit -sphere. If is a point on the unit circle's circumference, then and are the lengths of the legs of a right triangle whose hypotenuse has length 1. Thus, by the Pythagorean theorem, and satisfy the equation x^2 + y^2 = 1. Since for all , and since the reflection of any point on the unit circle about the - or -axis is also on the unit circle, the above equation holds for all points on the unit circle, not only those in the first quadrant. The interior of the unit circle is called the open unit disk, while the interior of the unit circle combined with the unit circle itself is called the closed unit disk. One may also use other notions of "dist ...
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Sigma-ring
In mathematics, a nonempty collection of sets is called a -ring (pronounced ''sigma-ring'') if it is closed Closed may refer to: Mathematics * Closure (mathematics), a set, along with operations, for which applying those operations on members always results in a member of the set * Closed set, a set which contains all its limit points * Closed interval, ... under countable union and relative complementation. Formal definition Let \mathcal be a nonempty collection of sets. Then \mathcal is a -ring if: # Closed under countable unions: \bigcup_^ A_ \in \mathcal if A_ \in \mathcal for all n \in \N # Closed under relative complementation: A \setminus B \in \mathcal if A, B \in \mathcal Properties These two properties imply: \bigcap_^ A_n \in \mathcal whenever A_1, A_2, \ldots are elements of \mathcal. This is because \bigcap_^\infty A_n = A_1 \setminus \bigcup_^\left(A_1 \setminus A_n\right). Every -ring is a δ-ring but there exist δ-rings that are not -rings. Simi ...
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Paul Halmos
Paul Richard Halmos ( hu, Halmos Pál; March 3, 1916 – October 2, 2006) was a Hungarian-born American mathematician and statistician who made fundamental advances in the areas of mathematical logic, probability theory, statistics, operator theory, ergodic theory, and functional analysis (in particular, Hilbert spaces). He was also recognized as a great mathematical expositor. He has been described as one of The Martians. Early life and education Born in Hungary into a Jewish family, Halmos arrived in the U.S. at 13 years of age. He obtained his B.A. from the University of Illinois, majoring in mathematics, but fulfilling the requirements for both a math and philosophy degree. He took only three years to obtain the degree, and was only 19 when he graduated. He then began a Ph.D. in philosophy, still at the Champaign–Urbana campus; but, after failing his masters' oral exams, he shifted to mathematics, graduating in 1938. Joseph L. Doob supervised his dissertation, titled ...
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Baire Set
In mathematics, more specifically in measure theory, the Baire sets form a σ-algebra of a topological space that avoids some of the pathological properties of Borel sets. There are several inequivalent definitions of Baire sets, but in the most widely used, the Baire sets of a locally compact Hausdorff space form the smallest σ-algebra such that all compactly supported continuous functions are measurable. Thus, measures defined on this σ-algebra, called Baire measures, are a convenient framework for integration on locally compact Hausdorff spaces. In particular, any compactly supported continuous function on such a space is integrable with respect to any finite Baire measure. Every Baire set is a Borel set. The converse holds in many, but not all, topological spaces. Baire sets avoid some pathological properties of Borel sets on spaces without a countable base for the topology. In practice, the use of Baire measures on Baire sets can often be replaced by the use of r ...
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Inner Regular
In mathematics, an inner regular measure is one for which the measure of a set can be approximated from within by compact subsets. Definition Let (''X'', ''T'') be a Hausdorff topological space and let Σ be a σ-algebra on ''X'' that contains the topology ''T'' (so that every open set is a measurable set, and Σ is at least as fine as the Borel σ-algebra on ''X''). Then a measure ''μ'' on the measurable space (''X'', Σ) is called inner regular if, for every set ''A'' in Σ, :\mu (A) = \sup \. This property is sometimes referred to in words as "approximation from within by compact sets." Some authors use the term tight as a synonym for inner regular. This use of the term is closely related to tightness of a family of measures, since a finite measure ''μ'' is inner regular if and only if, for all ''ε'' > 0, there is some compact subset ''K'' of ''X'' such that ''μ''(''X'' \ ''K'') < ''ε''. This is pre ...
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Outer Regular
In mathematics (specifically in measure theory), a Radon measure, named after Johann Radon, is a measure on the σ-algebra of Borel sets of a Hausdorff topological space ''X'' that is finite on all compact sets, outer regular on all Borel sets, and inner regular on open sets. These conditions guarantee that the measure is "compatible" with the topology of the space, and most measures used in mathematical analysis and in number theory are indeed Radon measures. Motivation A common problem is to find a good notion of a measure on a topological space that is compatible with the topology in some sense. One way to do this is to define a measure on the Borel sets of the topological space. In general there are several problems with this: for example, such a measure may not have a well defined support. Another approach to measure theory is to restrict to locally compact Hausdorff spaces, and only consider the measures that correspond to positive linear functionals on the space of ...
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Countably Additive
In mathematics, an additive set function is a function mapping sets to numbers, with the property that its value on a union of two disjoint sets equals the sum of its values on these sets, namely, \mu(A \cup B) = \mu(A) + \mu(B). If this additivity property holds for any two sets, then it also holds for any finite number of sets, namely, the function value on the union of ''k'' disjoint sets (where ''k'' is a finite number) equals the sum of its values on the sets. Therefore, an additive set function is also called a finitely-additive set function (the terms are equivalent). However, a finitely-additive set function might not have the additivity property for a union of an ''infinite'' number of sets. A σ-additive set function is a function that has the additivity property even for countably infinite many sets, that is, \mu\left(\bigcup_^\infty A_n\right) = \sum_^\infty \mu(A_n). Additivity and sigma-additivity are particularly important properties of measures. They are abstr ...
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Up To
Two mathematical objects ''a'' and ''b'' are called equal up to an equivalence relation ''R'' * if ''a'' and ''b'' are related by ''R'', that is, * if ''aRb'' holds, that is, * if the equivalence classes of ''a'' and ''b'' with respect to ''R'' are equal. This figure of speech is mostly used in connection with expressions derived from equality, such as uniqueness or count. For example, ''x'' is unique up to ''R'' means that all objects ''x'' under consideration are in the same equivalence class with respect to the relation ''R''. Moreover, the equivalence relation ''R'' is often designated rather implicitly by a generating condition or transformation. For example, the statement "an integer's prime factorization is unique up to ordering" is a concise way to say that any two lists of prime factors of a given integer are equivalent with respect to the relation ''R'' that relates two lists if one can be obtained by reordering (permutation) from the other. As another example, the sta ...
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