* picture info Graph (discrete Mathematics) In discrete mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a graph is a structure amounting to a set of objects in which some pairs of the objects are in some sense "related". The objects correspond to mathematical abstractions called '' vertices'' (also called ''nodes'' or ''points'') and each of the related pairs of vertices is called an ''edge'' (also called ''link'' or ''line''). Typically, a graph is depicted in diagrammatic form as a set of dots or circles for the vertices, joined by lines or curves for the edges. Graphs are one of the objects of study in discrete mathematics. The edges may be directed or undirected. For example, if the vertices represent people at a party, and there is an edge between two people if they shake hands, then this graph is undirected because any person ''A'' can shake hands with a person ''B'' only if ''B'' also shakes hands with ''A''. In contrast, if an edge from a person ''A'' to a person ''B'' means that ''A'' owes money to ''B'', th ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Binary Relation In mathematics, a binary relation associates elements of one set, called the ''domain'', with elements of another set, called the ''codomain''. A binary relation over sets and is a new set of ordered pairs consisting of elements in and in . It is a generalization of the more widely understood idea of a unary function. It encodes the common concept of relation: an element is ''related'' to an element , if and only if the pair belongs to the set of ordered pairs that defines the ''binary relation''. A binary relation is the most studied special case of an -ary relation over sets , which is a subset of the Cartesian product X_1 \times \cdots \times X_n. An example of a binary relation is the "divides" relation over the set of prime numbers \mathbb and the set of integers \mathbb, in which each prime is related to each integer that is a multiple of , but not to an integer that is not a multiple of . In this relation, for instance, the prime number 2 is related to numbe ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Traveling Salesman Problem The travelling salesman problem (also called the travelling salesperson problem or TSP) asks the following question: "Given a list of cities and the distances between each pair of cities, what is the shortest possible route that visits each city exactly once and returns to the origin city?" It is an NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization, important in theoretical computer science and operations research. The travelling purchaser problem and the vehicle routing problem are both generalizations of TSP. In the theory of computational complexity, the decision version of the TSP (where given a length ''L'', the task is to decide whether the graph has a tour of at most ''L'') belongs to the class of NP-complete problems. Thus, it is possible that the worst-case running time for any algorithm for the TSP increases superpolynomially (but no more than exponentially) with the number of cities. The problem was first formulated in 1930 and is one of the most intensively studied ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Shortest Path Problem In graph theory, the shortest path problem is the problem of finding a path between two vertices (or nodes) in a graph such that the sum of the weights of its constituent edges is minimized. The problem of finding the shortest path between two intersections on a road map may be modeled as a special case of the shortest path problem in graphs, where the vertices correspond to intersections and the edges correspond to road segments, each weighted by the length of the segment. Definition The shortest path problem can be defined for graphs whether undirected, directed, or mixed. It is defined here for undirected graphs; for directed graphs the definition of path requires that consecutive vertices be connected by an appropriate directed edge. Two vertices are adjacent when they are both incident to a common edge. A path in an undirected graph is a sequence of vertices P = ( v_1, v_2, \ldots, v_n ) \in V \times V \times \cdots \times V such that v_i is adjacent to v_ for 1 \leq i ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Weighted Network A weighted network is a network where the ties among nodes have weights assigned to them. A network is a system whose elements are somehow connected. The elements of a system are represented as nodes (also known as actors or vertices) and the connections among interacting elements are known as ties, edges, arcs, or links. The nodes might be neurons, individuals, groups, organisations, airports, or even countries, whereas ties can take the form of friendship, communication, collaboration, alliance, flow, or trade, to name a few. In a number of real-world networks, not all ties in a network have the same capacity. In fact, ties are often associated with weights that differentiate them in terms of their strength, intensity, or capacity On the one hand, Mark Granovetter (1973) argued that the strength of social relationships in social networks is a function of their duration, emotional intensity, intimacy, and exchange of services. On the other, for non-social networks, weights often ref ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Binary Relation In mathematics, a binary relation associates elements of one set, called the ''domain'', with elements of another set, called the ''codomain''. A binary relation over sets and is a new set of ordered pairs consisting of elements in and in . It is a generalization of the more widely understood idea of a unary function. It encodes the common concept of relation: an element is ''related'' to an element , if and only if the pair belongs to the set of ordered pairs that defines the ''binary relation''. A binary relation is the most studied special case of an -ary relation over sets , which is a subset of the Cartesian product X_1 \times \cdots \times X_n. An example of a binary relation is the "divides" relation over the set of prime numbers \mathbb and the set of integers \mathbb, in which each prime is related to each integer that is a multiple of , but not to an integer that is not a multiple of . In this relation, for instance, the prime number 2 is related to numbe ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Quiver (mathematics) In graph theory, a quiver is a directed graph where loops and multiple arrows between two vertices are allowed, i.e. a multidigraph. They are commonly used in representation theory: a representation  of a quiver assigns a vector space  to each vertex  of the quiver and a linear map  to each arrow . In category theory, a quiver can be understood to be the underlying structure of a category, but without composition or a designation of identity morphisms. That is, there is a forgetful functor from to . Its left adjoint is a free functor which, from a quiver, makes the corresponding free category. Definition A quiver Γ consists of: * The set ''V'' of vertices of Γ * The set ''E'' of edges of Γ * Two functions: ''s'': ''E'' → ''V'' giving the ''start'' or ''source'' of the edge, and another function, ''t'': ''E'' → ''V'' giving the ''target'' of the edge. This definition is identical to that of a multidigraph. A morphism of quivers is defined ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Multiple Edges In graph theory, multiple edges (also called parallel edges or a multi-edge), are, in an undirected graph, two or more edges that are incident to the same two vertices, or in a directed graph, two or more edges with both the same tail vertex and the same head vertex. A simple graph has no multiple edges and no loops. Depending on the context, a graph may be defined so as to either allow or disallow the presence of multiple edges (often in concert with allowing or disallowing loops): *Where graphs are defined so as to ''allow'' multiple edges and loops, a graph without loops or multiple edges is often distinguished from other graphs by calling it a ''simple graph.'' *Where graphs are defined so as to ''disallow'' multiple edges and loops, a multigraph or a pseudograph is often defined to mean a "graph" which ''can'' have loops and multiple edges. Multiple edges are, for example, useful in the consideration of electrical networks, from a graph theoretical point of view. Addit ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Directed Director may refer to: Literature * ''Director'' (magazine), a British magazine * ''The Director'' (novel), a 1971 novel by Henry Denker * ''The Director'' (play), a 2000 play by Nancy Hasty Music * Director (band), an Irish rock band * ''Director'' (Avant album) (2006) * ''Director'' (Yonatan Gat album) Occupations and positions Arts and design * Animation director * Artistic director * Creative director * Design director * Film director * Music director * Music video director * Sports director * Television director * Theatre director Positions in other fields * Director (business), a senior level management position * Director (colonial), head of chartered company's colonial administration in a territory * Director (education), head of a university or other educational body * Company director * Cruise director * Executive director * Finance director or chief financial officer * Funeral director * Managing director * Non-executive director * Technical director * Tour ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Symmetric Matrix In linear algebra, a symmetric matrix is a square matrix that is equal to its transpose. Formally, Because equal matrices have equal dimensions, only square matrices can be symmetric. The entries of a symmetric matrix are symmetric with respect to the main diagonal. So if a_ denotes the entry in the ith row and jth column then for all indices i and j. Every square diagonal matrix is symmetric, since all off-diagonal elements are zero. Similarly in characteristic different from 2, each diagonal element of a skew-symmetric matrix must be zero, since each is its own negative. In linear algebra, a real symmetric matrix represents a self-adjoint operator represented in an orthonormal basis over a real inner product space. The corresponding object for a complex inner product space is a Hermitian matrix with complex-valued entries, which is equal to its conjugate transpose. Therefore, in linear algebra over the complex numbers, it is often assumed that a symmetric matrix refe ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Adjacency Matrix In graph theory and computer science, an adjacency matrix is a square matrix used to represent a finite graph. The elements of the matrix indicate whether pairs of vertices are adjacent or not in the graph. In the special case of a finite simple graph, the adjacency matrix is a (0,1)-matrix with zeros on its diagonal. If the graph is undirected (i.e. all of its edges are bidirectional), the adjacency matrix is symmetric. The relationship between a graph and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of its adjacency matrix is studied in spectral graph theory. The adjacency matrix of a graph should be distinguished from its incidence matrix, a different matrix representation whose elements indicate whether vertex–edge pairs are incident or not, and its degree matrix, which contains information about the degree of each vertex. Definition For a simple graph with vertex set , the adjacency matrix is a square matrix such that its element is one when there is an edge from vertex to ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Symmetric Relation A symmetric relation is a type of binary relation. An example is the relation "is equal to", because if ''a'' = ''b'' is true then ''b'' = ''a'' is also true. Formally, a binary relation ''R'' over a set ''X'' is symmetric if: :\forall a, b \in X(a R b \Leftrightarrow b R a) , where the notation aRb means that (a,b)\in R. If ''R''T represents the converse of ''R'', then ''R'' is symmetric if and only if ''R'' = ''R''T. Symmetry, along with reflexivity and transitivity, are the three defining properties of an equivalence relation. Examples In mathematics * "is equal to" ( equality) (whereas "is less than" is not symmetric) * "is comparable to", for elements of a partially ordered set * "... and ... are odd": :::::: Outside mathematics * "is married to" (in most legal systems) * "is a fully biological sibling of" * "is a homophone of" * "is co-worker of" * "is teammate of" Relationship to asymmetric and antisymmetric relations By definition, a nonempty relation cannot be b ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]