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Grand Unified Theory
A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energies, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model comprising the electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces are merged into a single force. Although this unified force has not been directly observed, many GUT models theorize its existence. If unification of these three interactions is possible, it raises the possibility that there was a grand unification epoch in the very early universe in which these three fundamental interactions were not yet distinct. Experiments have confirmed that at high energy the electromagnetic interaction and weak interaction unify into a single electroweak interaction. GUT models predict that at even higher energy, the strong interaction and the electroweak interaction will unify into a single electronuclear interaction. This interaction is characterized by one larger gauge symmetry and thus several force carriers, but one unified coupling constant. Unifying ...
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Particle Physics
Particle physics or high energy physics is the study of fundamental particles and forces that constitute matter and radiation. The fundamental particles in the universe are classified in the Standard Model as fermions (matter particles) and bosons (force-carrying particles). There are three generations of fermions, but ordinary matter is made only from the first fermion generation. The first generation consists of up and down quarks which form protons and neutrons, and electrons and electron neutrinos. The three fundamental interactions known to be mediated by bosons are electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and the strong interaction. Quarks cannot exist on their own but form hadrons. Hadrons that contain an odd number of quarks are called baryons and those that contain an even number are called mesons. Two baryons, the proton and the neutron, make up most of the mass of ordinary matter. Mesons are unstable and the longest-lived last for only a few hundredt ...
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Simple Lie Group
In mathematics, a simple Lie group is a connected non-abelian Lie group ''G'' which does not have nontrivial connected normal subgroups. The list of simple Lie groups can be used to read off the list of simple Lie algebras and Riemannian symmetric spaces. Together with the commutative Lie group of the real numbers, \mathbb, and that of the unit-magnitude complex numbers, U(1) (the unit circle), simple Lie groups give the atomic "blocks" that make up all (finite-dimensional) connected Lie groups via the operation of group extension. Many commonly encountered Lie groups are either simple or 'close' to being simple: for example, the so-called "special linear group" SL(''n'') of ''n'' by ''n'' matrices with determinant equal to 1 is simple for all ''n'' > 1. The first classification of simple Lie groups was by Wilhelm Killing, and this work was later perfected by Élie Cartan. The final classification is often referred to as Killing-Cartan classification. Definition Unfort ...
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Reductive Group
In mathematics, a reductive group is a type of linear algebraic group over a field. One definition is that a connected linear algebraic group ''G'' over a perfect field is reductive if it has a representation with finite kernel which is a direct sum of irreducible representations. Reductive groups include some of the most important groups in mathematics, such as the general linear group ''GL''(''n'') of invertible matrices, the special orthogonal group ''SO''(''n''), and the symplectic group ''Sp''(2''n''). Simple algebraic groups and (more generally) semisimple algebraic groups are reductive. Claude Chevalley showed that the classification of reductive groups is the same over any algebraically closed field. In particular, the simple algebraic groups are classified by Dynkin diagrams, as in the theory of compact Lie groups or complex semisimple Lie algebras. Reductive groups over an arbitrary field are harder to classify, but for many fields such as the real numbers R or a n ...
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Simple Group
SIMPLE Group Limited is a conglomeration of separately run companies that each has its core area in International Consulting. The core business areas are Legal Services, Fiduciary Activities, Banking Intermediation and Corporate Service. The date of incorporation is listed as 1999 by Companies House of Gibraltar, who class it as a holding company; however it is understood that SIMPLE Group's business and trading activities date to the second part of the 90s, probably as an incorporated body. SIMPLE Group Limited is a conglomerate Conglomerate or conglomeration may refer to: * Conglomerate (company) * Conglomerate (geology) * Conglomerate (mathematics) In popular culture: * The Conglomerate (American group), a production crew and musical group founded by Busta Rhymes ** ... that cultivate secrecy, they are not listed on any Stock Exchange and the group is owned by a complicated series of offshore trusts. The Sunday Times stated that SIMPLE Group's interests could be eval ...
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Family Symmetries
In particle physics, the family symmetries or horizontal symmetries are various discrete, global, or local symmetries between quark-lepton families or generations. In contrast to the intrafamily or vertical symmetries (collected in the conventional Standard Model and Grand Unified Theories) which operate inside each family, these symmetries presumably underlie physics of the family flavors. They may be treated as a new set of quantum charges assigned to different families of quarks and leptons. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of these symmetries is believed to lead to an adequate description of the flavor mixing of quarks and leptons of different families.  This is certainly one of the major problems that presently confront particle physics. Despite its great success in explaining the basic interactions of nature, the Standard Model still suffers from an absence of such a unique ability to explain the flavor mixing angles or weak mixing angles (as they are conventionally referred ...
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Fermion
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics. Generally, it has a half-odd-integer spin: spin , spin , etc. In addition, these particles obey the Pauli exclusion principle. Fermions include all quarks and leptons and all composite particles made of an odd number of these, such as all baryons and many atoms and nuclei. Fermions differ from bosons, which obey Bose–Einstein statistics. Some fermions are elementary particles (such as electrons), and some are composite particles (such as protons). For example, according to the spin-statistics theorem in relativistic quantum field theory, particles with integer spin are bosons. In contrast, particles with half-integer spin are fermions. In addition to the spin characteristic, fermions have another specific property: they possess conserved baryon or lepton quantum numbers. Therefore, what is usually referred to as the spin-statistics relation is, in fact, a spin statistics-quantum nu ...
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Magnetic Monopole
In particle physics, a magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa). A magnetic monopole would have a net north or south "magnetic charge". Modern interest in the concept stems from particle theories, notably the grand unified and superstring theories, which predict their existence. The known elementary particles that have electric charge are electric monopoles. Magnetism in bar magnets and electromagnets is not caused by magnetic monopoles, and indeed, there is no known experimental or observational evidence that magnetic monopoles exist. Some condensed matter systems contain effective (non-isolated) magnetic monopole quasi-particles, or contain phenomena that are mathematically analogous to magnetic monopoles. Historical background Early science and classical physics Many early scientists attributed the magnetism of lodestones to two different "magnetic f ...
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Pati–Salam Model
In physics, the Pati–Salam model is a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) proposed in 1974 by Abdus Salam and Jogesh Pati. Like other GUTs, its goal is to explain the seeming arbitrariness and complexity of the Standard Model in terms of a simpler, more fundamental theory that unifies what are in the Standard Model disparate particles and forces. The Pati–Salam unification is based on there being four quark color charges, dubbed red, green, blue and violet (or originally lilac), instead of the conventional three, with the new "violet" quark being identified with the leptons. The model also has left–right symmetry and predicts the existence of a high energy right handed weak interaction with heavy W' and Z' bosons and right-handed neutrinos. Originally the fourth color was labelled "lilac" to alliterate with "lepton". Pati–Salam is an alternative to the Georgi–Glashow unification also proposed in 1974. Both can be embedded within an unification model. Core theory The Pati� ...
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Westview Press
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals. Its parts include Taylor & Francis, Routledge, F1000 Research or Dovepress. It is a division of Informa plc, a United Kingdom–based publisher and conference company. Overview The company was founded in 1852 when William Francis joined Richard Taylor in his publishing business. Taylor had founded his company in 1798. Their subjects covered agriculture, chemistry, education, engineering, geography, law, mathematics, medicine, and social sciences. Francis's son, Richard Taunton Francis (1883–1930), was sole partner in the firm from 1917 to 1930. In 1965, Taylor & Francis launched Wykeham Publications and began book publishing. T&F acquired Hemisphere Publishing in 1988, and the company was renamed Taylor & Francis Group to reflect the growing number of imprints. Taylor & Francis left the printing business in 1990, to concentrate on publishing. In 1998 ...
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Neutrino
A neutrino ( ; denoted by the Greek letter ) is a fermion (an elementary particle with spin of ) that interacts only via the weak interaction and gravity. The neutrino is so named because it is electrically neutral and because its rest mass is so small ('' -ino'') that it was long thought to be zero. The rest mass of the neutrino is much smaller than that of the other known elementary particles excluding massless particles. The weak force has a very short range, the gravitational interaction is extremely weak due to the very small mass of the neutrino, and neutrinos do not participate in the strong interaction. Thus, neutrinos typically pass through normal matter unimpeded and undetected. Weak interactions create neutrinos in one of three Lepton, leptonic Flavor (particle physics), flavors: electron neutrinos muon neutrinos (), or tau neutrinos (), in association with the corresponding charged lepton. Although neutrinos were long believed to be massless, it is now kn ...
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Elementary Particle
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include electrons, the fundamental fermions ( quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons, which generally are matter particles and antimatter particles), as well as the fundamental bosons ( gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), which generally are force particles that mediate interactions among fermions. A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite particle. Ordinary matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be elementary particles – ''atomos'' meaning "unable to be cut" in Greek – although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1905, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy. Subatomic constituents of the atom were first identified in the early 1930s; the electron and the ...
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