* picture info Gaussian Units Gaussian units constitute a metric system of physical units. This system is the most common of the several electromagnetic unit systems based on cgs (centimetre–gram–second) units. It is also called the Gaussian unit system, Gaussian-cgs units, or often just cgs units. The term "cgs units" is ambiguous and therefore to be avoided if possible: there are several variants of cgs with conflicting definitions of electromagnetic quantities and units. SI units predominate in most fields, and continue to increase in popularity at the expense of Gaussian units. Alternative unit systems also exist. Conversions between quantities in Gaussian and SI units are direct unit conversions, because the quantities themselves are defined differently in each system. This means that the equations expressing physical laws of electromagnetism—such as Maxwell's—will change depending on the system of units employed. As an example, quantities that are dimensionless in one system may have dimension ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Carl Friedrich Gauss Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (; german: Gauß ; la, Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields in mathematics and science. Sometimes referred to as the ''Princeps mathematicorum'' () and "the greatest mathematician since antiquity", Gauss had an exceptional influence in many fields of mathematics and science, and he is ranked among history's most influential mathematicians. Also available at Retrieved 23 February 2014. Comprehensive biographical article. Biography Early years Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on 30 April 1777 in Brunswick (Braunschweig), in the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (now part of Lower Saxony, Germany), to poor, working-class parents. His mother was illiterate and never recorded the date of his birth, remembering only that he had been born on a Wednesday, eight days before the Feast of the Ascension (which occurs 39 days after Easter). Ga ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Particle Physics Particle physics or high energy physics is the study of fundamental particles and forces that constitute matter and radiation. The fundamental particles in the universe are classified in the Standard Model as fermions (matter particles) and bosons (force-carrying particles). There are three generations of fermions, but ordinary matter is made only from the first fermion generation. The first generation consists of up and down quarks which form protons and neutrons, and electrons and electron neutrinos. The three fundamental interactions known to be mediated by bosons are electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and the strong interaction. Quarks cannot exist on their own but form hadrons. Hadrons that contain an odd number of quarks are called baryons and those that contain an even number are called mesons. Two baryons, the proton and the neutron, make up most of the mass of ordinary matter. Mesons are unstable and the longest-lived last for only a few hundredths of a mi ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Vacuum Permittivity Vacuum permittivity, commonly denoted (pronounced "epsilon nought" or "epsilon zero"), is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum. It may also be referred to as the permittivity of free space, the electric constant, or the distributed capacitance of the vacuum. It is an ideal (baseline) physical constant. Its CODATA value is: : (farads per meter), with a relative uncertainty of It is a measure of how dense of an electric field is "permitted" to form in response to electric charges, and relates the units for electric charge to mechanical quantities such as length and force. For example, the force between two separated electric charges with spherical symmetry (in the vacuum of classical electromagnetism) is given by Coulomb's law: :F_\text = \frac \frac Here, ''q''1 and ''q''2 are the charges, ''r'' is the distance between their centres, and the value of the constant fraction 1/4 \pi \varepsilon_0 (known as the Coulomb constant, ''k''e) is ap ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Dyne The dyne (symbol: dyn; ) is a derived unit of force specified in the centimetre–gram–second (CGS) system of units, a predecessor of the modern SI. History The name dyne was first proposed as a CGS unit of force in 1873 by a Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Definition The dyne is defined as "the force required to accelerate a mass of one gram at a rate of one centimetre per second squared". An equivalent definition of the dyne is "that force which, acting for one second, will produce a change of velocity of one centimetre per second in a mass of one gram". One dyne is equal to 10 micronewtons, 10−5 N or to 10 nsn (nano sthenes) in the old metre–tonne–second system of units. : 1 dyn = 1 g⋅cm/s2 = 10−5 kg⋅m/s2 = 10−5 N : 1 N = 1 kg⋅m/s2 = 105 g⋅cm/s2 = 105 dyn Use The dyne per centimetre is a unit traditionally used to measure surface tension Surface tension is the tendency of liquid surfaces at rest ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Centimetre 330px, Different lengths as in respect to the Electromagnetic spectrum, measured by the Metre and its deriveds scales. The Microwave are in-between 1 meter to 1 millimeter. A centimetre (international spelling) or centimeter (American spelling) (SI symbol cm) is a Units of measurement, unit of length in the International System of Units (SI), equal to one hundredth of a metre, ''centi'' being the SI prefix for a factor of . The centimetre was the base unit of length in the now deprecated centimetre–gram–second (CGS) system of units. Though for many physical quantities, SI prefixes for factors of 103—like ''milli-'' and ''kilo-''—are often preferred by technicians, the centimetre remains a practical unit of length for many everyday measurements. A centimetre is approximately the width of the fingernail of an average adult person. Equivalence to other units of length : One millilitre is defined as one cubic centimetre, under the SI system of units. Other uses In ad ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] StatC The franklin (Fr) or statcoulomb (statC) electrostatic unit of charge (esu) is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the cgs-esu and Gaussian units. It is a derived unit given by : 1 statC = 1 dyn1/2⋅cm = 1 cm3/2⋅g1/2⋅s−1. That is, it is defined so that the Coulomb constant becomes a dimensionless quantity equal to 1. It can be converted using : 1 newton = 105 dyne : 1 cm = 10−2 m The SI system of units uses the coulomb (C) instead. The conversion between C and statC is different in different contexts. The most common contexts are: * For electric charge: *: 1 C ≘ ≈ *: ⇒ 1 statC ≘ ~. * For electric flux (ΦD): *: 1 C ≘ 4π × ≈ *: ⇒ 1 statC ≘ ~. The symbol "≘" ('corresponds to') is used instead of "=" because the two sides are not interchangeable, as discussed below. The number is 10 times the numeric value of the speed of light expressed in meters/second, and the conversions are ''exac ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Statcoulomb The franklin (Fr) or statcoulomb (statC) electrostatic unit of charge (esu) is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the cgs-esu and Gaussian units. It is a derived unit given by : 1 statC = 1 dyn1/2⋅cm = 1 cm3/2⋅g1/2⋅s−1. That is, it is defined so that the Coulomb constant becomes a dimensionless quantity equal to 1. It can be converted using : 1 newton = 105 dyne : 1 cm = 10−2 m The SI system of units uses the coulomb (C) instead. The conversion between C and statC is different in different contexts. The most common contexts are: * For electric charge: *: 1 C ≘ ≈ *: ⇒ 1 statC ≘ ~. * For electric flux (ΦD): *: 1 C ≘ 4π × ≈ *: ⇒ 1 statC ≘ ~. The symbol "≘" ('corresponds to') is used instead of "=" because the two sides are not interchangeable, as discussed below. The number is 10 times the numeric value of the speed of light expressed in meters/second, and the conversions are ''exact ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Coulomb The coulomb (symbol: C) is the unit of electric charge in the International System of Units (SI). In the present version of the SI it is equal to the electric charge delivered by a 1 ampere constant current in 1 second and to elementary charges, , (about ). Name and history By 1878, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt, ohm, and farad, but not the coulomb. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), approved the volt as the unit for electromotive force, the ampere as the unit for electric current, and the coulomb as the unit of electric charge. At that time, the volt was defined as the potential difference .e., what is nowadays called the "voltage (difference)"across a conductor when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power. The coulomb (later "absolute coulomb" or "abcoulomb" for disambiguation) was part of the EMU system of units. The "international coulom ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Ampere The ampere (, ; symbol: A), often shortened to amp,SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units. is the unit of electric current in the International System of Units (SI). One ampere is equal to electrons worth of charge moving past a point in a second. It is named after French mathematician and physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836), considered the father of electromagnetism along with Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted. As of the 2019 redefinition of the SI base units, the ampere is defined by fixing the elementary charge to be exactly C (coulomb), which means an ampere is an electrical current equivalent to elementary charges moving every seconds or elementary charges moving in a second. Prior to the redefinition the ampere was defined as the current that would need to be passed through 2 parallel wires 1 metre apart to produce a magnetic force of newtons per metre. The earlier CGS system had two definitions o ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Inverse-square Law In science, an inverse-square law is any scientific law stating that a specified physical quantity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity. The fundamental cause for this can be understood as geometric dilution corresponding to point-source radiation into three-dimensional space. Radar energy expands during both the signal transmission and the reflected return, so the inverse square for both paths means that the radar will receive energy according to the inverse fourth power of the range. To prevent dilution of energy while propagating a signal, certain methods can be used such as a waveguide, which acts like a canal does for water, or how a gun barrel restricts hot gas expansion to one dimension in order to prevent loss of energy transfer to a bullet. Formula In mathematical notation the inverse square law can be expressed as an intensity (I) varying as a function of distance (d) from some centre. The intensity is pr ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Gauss's Law In physics and electromagnetism, Gauss's law, also known as Gauss's flux theorem, (or sometimes simply called Gauss's theorem) is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field. In its integral form, it states that the flux of the electric field out of an arbitrary closed surface is proportional to the electric charge enclosed by the surface, irrespective of how that charge is distributed. Even though the law alone is insufficient to determine the electric field across a surface enclosing any charge distribution, this may be possible in cases where symmetry mandates uniformity of the field. Where no such symmetry exists, Gauss's law can be used in its differential form, which states that the divergence of the electric field is proportional to the local density of charge. The law was first formulated by Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1773, followed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1835, both in the context of the attraction of ellipsoids. It is one of M ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Biot–Savart Law In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the Biot–Savart law ( or ) is an equation describing the magnetic field generated by a constant electric current. It relates the magnetic field to the magnitude, direction, length, and proximity of the electric current. The Biot–Savart law is fundamental to magnetostatics, playing a role similar to that of Coulomb's law in electrostatics. When magnetostatics does not apply, the Biot–Savart law should be replaced by Jefimenko's equations. The law is valid in the magnetostatic approximation, and consistent with both Ampère's circuital law and Gauss's law for magnetism. It is named after Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart, who discovered this relationship in 1820. Equation Electric currents (along a closed curve/wire) The Biot–Savart law is used for computing the resultant magnetic field B at position r in 3D-space generated by a flexible current ''I'' (for example due to a wire). A steady (or stationary) current is a continua ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]