Galois Theory
In mathematics, Galois theory, originally introduced by Évariste Galois, provides a connection between field theory and group theory. This connection, the fundamental theorem of Galois theory, allows reducing certain problems in field theory to group theory, which makes them simpler and easier to understand. Galois introduced the subject for studying roots of polynomials. This allowed him to characterize the polynomial equations that are solvable by radicals in terms of properties of the permutation group of their roots—an equation is ''solvable by radicals'' if its roots may be expressed by a formula involving only integers, th roots, and the four basic arithmetic operations. This widely generalizes the Abel–Ruffini theorem, which asserts that a general polynomial of degree at least five cannot be solved by radicals. Galois theory has been used to solve classic problems including showing that two problems of antiquity cannot be solved as they were stated ( doubling the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lattice Diagram Of Q Adjoin The Positive Square Roots Of 2 And 3, Its Subfields, And Galois Groups
Lattice may refer to: Arts and design * Latticework, an ornamental crisscrossed framework, an arrangement of crossing laths or other thin strips of material * Lattice (music), an organized grid model of pitch ratios * Lattice (pastry), an ornamental pattern of crossing strips of pastry Companies * Lattice Engines, a technology company specializing in business applications for marketing and sales * Lattice Group, a former British gas transmission business * Lattice Semiconductor, a USbased integrated circuit manufacturer Science, technology, and mathematics Mathematics * Lattice (group), a repeating arrangement of points ** Lattice (discrete subgroup), a discrete subgroup of a topological group whose quotient carries an invariant finite Borel measure ** Lattice (module), a module over a ring which is embedded in a vector space over a field ** Lattice graph, a graph that can be drawn within a repeating arrangement of points ** Latticebased cryptography, encryption system ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constructible Polygon
In mathematics, a constructible polygon is a regular polygon that can be constructed with compass and straightedge. For example, a regular pentagon is constructible with compass and straightedge while a regular heptagon is not. There are infinitely many constructible polygons, but only 31 with an odd number of sides are known. Conditions for constructibility Some regular polygons are easy to construct with compass and straightedge; others are not. The ancient Greek mathematicians knew how to construct a regular polygon with 3, 4, or 5 sides, and they knew how to construct a regular polygon with double the number of sides of a given regular polygon.Bold, Benjamin. ''Famous Problems of Geometry and How to Solve Them'', Dover Publications, 1982 (orig. 1969). This led to the question being posed: is it possible to construct ''all'' regular polygons with compass and straightedge? If not, which ''n''gons (that is, polygons with ''n'' edges) are constructible and which are not? Carl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elementary Symmetric Polynomial
In mathematics, specifically in commutative algebra, the elementary symmetric polynomials are one type of basic building block for symmetric polynomials, in the sense that any symmetric polynomial can be expressed as a polynomial in elementary symmetric polynomials. That is, any symmetric polynomial is given by an expression involving only additions and multiplication of constants and elementary symmetric polynomials. There is one elementary symmetric polynomial of degree in variables for each positive integer , and it is formed by adding together all distinct products of distinct variables. Definition The elementary symmetric polynomials in variables , written for , are defined by :\begin e_1 (X_1, X_2, \dots,X_n) &= \sum_ X_j,\\ e_2 (X_1, X_2, \dots,X_n) &= \sum_ X_j X_k,\\ e_3 (X_1, X_2, \dots,X_n) &= \sum_ X_j X_k X_l,\\ \end and so forth, ending with : e_n (X_1, X_2, \dots,X_n) = X_1 X_2 \cdots X_n. In general, for we define : e_k (X_1 , \ldots , X_n )=\sum_ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Monic Polynomial
In algebra, a monic polynomial is a singlevariable polynomial (that is, a univariate polynomial) in which the leading coefficient (the nonzero coefficient of highest degree) is equal to 1. Therefore, a monic polynomial has the form: :x^n+c_x^+\cdots+c_2x^2+c_1x+c_0 Univariate polynomials If a polynomial has only one indeterminate ( univariate polynomial), then the terms are usually written either from highest degree to lowest degree ("descending powers") or from lowest degree to highest degree ("ascending powers"). A univariate polynomial in ''x'' of degree ''n'' then takes the general form displayed above, where : ''c''''n'' ≠ 0, ''c''''n''−1, ..., ''c''2, ''c''1 and ''c''0 are constants, the coefficients of the polynomial. Here the term ''c''''n''''x''''n'' is called the ''leading term'', and its coefficient ''c''''n'' the ''leading coefficient''; if the leading coefficient , the univariate polynomial is called monic. Properties Multiplicatively closed The s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Symmetric Functions
In mathematics, a function of n variables is symmetric if its value is the same no matter the order of its arguments. For example, a function f\left(x_1,x_2\right) of two arguments is a symmetric function if and only if f\left(x_1,x_2\right) = f\left(x_2,x_1\right) for all x_1 and x_2 such that \left(x_1,x_2\right) and \left(x_2,x_1\right) are in the domain of f. The most commonly encountered symmetric functions are polynomial functions, which are given by the symmetric polynomials. A related notion is alternating polynomials, which change sign under an interchange of variables. Aside from polynomial functions, tensors that act as functions of several vectors can be symmetric, and in fact the space of symmetric ktensors on a vector space V is isomorphic to the space of homogeneous polynomials of degree k on V. Symmetric functions should not be confused with even and odd functions, which have a different sort of symmetry. Symmetrization Given any function f in n variables ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Compassandstraightedge Construction
In geometry, straightedgeandcompass construction – also known as rulerandcompass construction, Euclidean construction, or classical construction – is the construction of lengths, angles, and other geometric figures using only an idealized ruler and a pair of compasses. The idealized ruler, known as a straightedge, is assumed to be infinite in length, have only one edge, and no markings on it. The compass is assumed to have no maximum or minimum radius, and is assumed to "collapse" when lifted from the page, so may not be directly used to transfer distances. (This is an unimportant restriction since, using a multistep procedure, a distance can be transferred even with a collapsing compass; see compass equivalence theorem. Note however that whilst a noncollapsing compass held against a straightedge might seem to be equivalent to marking it, the neusis construction is still impermissible and this is what unmarked really means: see Markable rulers below.) More formall ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Angle Trisection
Angle trisection is a classical problem of straightedge and compass construction of ancient Greek mathematics. It concerns construction of an angle equal to one third of a given arbitrary angle, using only two tools: an unmarked straightedge and a compass. Pierre Wantzel proved in 1837 that the problem, as stated, is impossible to solve for arbitrary angles. However, although there is no way to trisect an angle ''in general'' with just a compass and a straightedge, some special angles can be trisected. For example, it is relatively straightforward to trisect a right angle (that is, to construct an angle of measure 30 degrees). It is possible to trisect an arbitrary angle by using tools other than straightedge and compass. For example, neusis construction, also known to ancient Greeks, involves simultaneous sliding and rotation of a marked straightedge, which cannot be achieved with the original tools. Other techniques were developed by mathematicians over the centuries. Bec ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constructible Polygon
In mathematics, a constructible polygon is a regular polygon that can be constructed with compass and straightedge. For example, a regular pentagon is constructible with compass and straightedge while a regular heptagon is not. There are infinitely many constructible polygons, but only 31 with an odd number of sides are known. Conditions for constructibility Some regular polygons are easy to construct with compass and straightedge; others are not. The ancient Greek mathematicians knew how to construct a regular polygon with 3, 4, or 5 sides, and they knew how to construct a regular polygon with double the number of sides of a given regular polygon.Bold, Benjamin. ''Famous Problems of Geometry and How to Solve Them'', Dover Publications, 1982 (orig. 1969). This led to the question being posed: is it possible to construct ''all'' regular polygons with compass and straightedge? If not, which ''n''gons (that is, polygons with ''n'' edges) are constructible and which are not? Carl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Geometry
Geometry (; ) is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space such as the distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a '' geometer''. Until the 19th century, geometry was almost exclusively devoted to Euclidean geometry, which includes the notions of point, line, plane, distance, angle, surface, and curve, as fundamental concepts. During the 19th century several discoveries enlarged dramatically the scope of geometry. One of the oldest such discoveries is Carl Friedrich Gauss' ("remarkable theorem") that asserts roughly that the Gaussian curvature of a surface is independent from any specific embedding in a Euclidean space. This implies that surfaces can be studied ''intrinsically'', that is, as standalone spaces, and has been expanded into the theory of manifolds and Riemannian geometry. Later in the 19th century, it appeared that ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Compass And Straightedge
In geometry, straightedgeandcompass construction – also known as rulerandcompass construction, Euclidean construction, or classical construction – is the construction of lengths, angles, and other geometric figures using only an idealized ruler and a pair of compasses. The idealized ruler, known as a straightedge, is assumed to be infinite in length, have only one edge, and no markings on it. The compass is assumed to have no maximum or minimum radius, and is assumed to "collapse" when lifted from the page, so may not be directly used to transfer distances. (This is an unimportant restriction since, using a multistep procedure, a distance can be transferred even with a collapsing compass; see compass equivalence theorem. Note however that whilst a noncollapsing compass held against a straightedge might seem to be equivalent to marking it, the neusis construction is still impermissible and this is what unmarked really means: see Markable rulers below.) More formall ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm () is a finite sequence of rigorous instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are used as specifications for performing calculations and data processing. More advanced algorithms can perform automated deductions (referred to as automated reasoning) and use mathematical and logical tests to divert the code execution through various routes (referred to as automated decisionmaking). Using human characteristics as descriptors of machines in metaphorical ways was already practiced by Alan Turing with terms such as "memory", "search" and "stimulus". In contrast, a heuristic is an approach to problem solving that may not be fully specified or may not guarantee correct or optimal results, especially in problem domains where there is no welldefined correct or optimal result. As an effective method, an algorithm can be expressed within a finite amount of sp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Grothendieck's Galois Theory
In mathematics, Grothendieck's Galois theory is an abstract approach to the Galois theory of fields, developed around 1960 to provide a way to study the fundamental group of algebraic topology in the setting of algebraic geometry. It provides, in the classical setting of field theory, an alternative perspective to that of Emil Artin based on linear algebra, which became standard from about the 1930s. The approach of Alexander Grothendieck is concerned with the categorytheoretic properties that characterise the categories of finite ''G''sets for a fixed profinite group ''G''. For example, ''G'' might be the group denoted \hat, which is the inverse limit of the cyclic additive groups Z/nZ — or equivalently the completion of the infinite cyclic group Z for the topology of subgroups of finite index. A finite ''G''set is then a finite set ''X'' on which ''G'' acts through a quotient finite cyclic group, so that it is specified by giving some permutation of ''X''. In ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 