Euler Diagram
An Euler diagram (, ) is a diagrammatic means of representing sets and their relationships. They are particularly useful for explaining complex hierarchies and overlapping definitions. They are similar to another set diagramming technique, Venn diagrams. Unlike Venn diagrams, which show all possible relations between different sets, the Euler diagram shows only relevant relationships. The first use of "Eulerian circles" is commonly attributed to Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707–1783). In the United States, both Venn and Euler diagrams were incorporated as part of instruction in set theory as part of the new math movement of the 1960s. Since then, they have also been adopted by other curriculum fields such as reading as well as organizations and businesses. Euler diagrams consist of simple closed shapes in a twodimensional plane that each depict a set or category. How or whether these shapes overlap demonstrates the relationships between the sets. Each curve divid ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Christian Weise
Christian Weise (30 April 1642 – 21 October 1708), also known under the pseudonyms Siegmund Gleichviel, Orontes, Catharinus Civilis and Tarquinius Eatullus, was a German writer, dramatist, poet, pedagogue and librarian of the Baroque era. He produced a large number of dramatic works, noted for their social criticism and idiomatic style. In the 1670s he started a fashion for German "political novels". He has also been credited with the invention of the mathematical Euler diagram, though this is uncertain. Biography Christian Weise was born in Zittau, the son of Elias Weise, a ''magister tertium'' or assistant teacher. Weise studied theology at the University of Leipzig, gaining a Magister's degree in 1663. His studies expanded into rhetoric, politics, history and poetry, and for a brief period after his graduation he lectured there in those subjects. However, in 1668 he secured a post at the court in Halle, as the secretary of Simon Philipp von LeiningenWesterburg, the minister o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Edward W
Edward is an English given name. It is derived from the AngloSaxon name ''Ēadweard'', composed of the elements '' ēad'' "wealth, fortune; prosperous" and '' weard'' "guardian, protector”. History The name Edward was very popular in AngloSaxon England, but the rule of the Norman and Plantagenet dynasties had effectively ended its use amongst the upper classes. The popularity of the name was revived when Henry III named his firstborn son, the future Edward I, as part of his efforts to promote a cult around Edward the Confessor, for whom Henry had a deep admiration. Variant forms The name has been adopted in the Iberian peninsula since the 15th century, due to Edward, King of Portugal, whose mother was English. The Spanish/Portuguese forms of the name are Eduardo and Duarte. Other variant forms include French Édouard, Italian Edoardo and Odoardo, German, Dutch, Czech and Romanian Eduard and Scandinavian Edvard. Short forms include Ed, Eddy, Eddie, Ted, Teddy and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Maurice Karnaugh
Maurice Karnaugh (; October 4, 1924 – November 8, 2022) was an American physicist, mathematician, computer scientist, and inventor known for the Karnaugh map used in Boolean algebra. Career Karnaugh studied mathematics and physics at City College of New York (1944 to 1948) and transferred to Yale University to complete his B.Sc. (1949), M.Sc. (1950) and Ph.D. in physics with a thesis on ''The Theory of Magnetic Resonance and LambdaType Doubling in NitricOxide'' (1952). Karnaugh worked at Bell Labs (1952 to 1966), developing the Karnaugh map (1954) as well as patents for PCM encoding and magnetic logic circuits and coding. He later worked at IBM's Federal Systems Division in Gaithersburg (1966 to 1970) and at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center (1970 to 1994), studying multistage interconnection networks. Karnaugh was elected an IEEE Fellow in 1976, and held an adjunct position at Polytechnic University of New York (now New York University Tandon School of Enginee ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Domain Of Discourse
In the formal sciences, the domain of discourse, also called the universe of discourse, universal set, or simply universe, is the set of entities over which certain variables of interest in some formal treatment may range. Overview The domain of discourse is usually identified in the preliminaries, so that there is no need in the further treatment to specify each time the range of the relevant variables. Many logicians distinguish, sometimes only tacitly, between the ''domain of a science'' and the ''universe of discourse of a formalization of the science''.José Miguel Sagüillo, Domains of sciences, universe of discourse, and omega arguments, History and philosophy of logic, vol. 20 (1999), pp. 267–280. Examples For example, in an interpretation of firstorder logic, the domain of discourse is the set of individuals over which the quantifiers range. A proposition such as is ambiguous, if no domain of discourse has been identified. In one interpretation, the domain of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Louis Couturat
Louis Couturat (; 17 January 1868 – 3 August 1914) was a French logician, mathematician, philosopher, and linguist. Couturat was a pioneer of the constructed language Ido. Life and education Born in RisOrangis, Essonne, France. In 1887 he entered École Normale Supérieure to study philosophy and mathematics. In 1895 he lectured in philosophy at the University of Toulouse and 1897 lectured in philosophy of mathematics at the University of Caen Normandy, taking a stand in favor of transfinite numbers. After a time in Hanover studying the writings of Leibniz, he became an assistant to HenriLouis Bergson at the Collège de France in 1905. Career He was ''the'' French advocate of the symbolic logic that emerged in the years before World War I, thanks to the writings of Charles Sanders Peirce, Giuseppe Peano and his school, and especially to '' The Principles of Mathematics'' by Couturat's friend and correspondent Bertrand Russell. Like Russell, Couturat saw symbolic log ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Venn Diagrams
A Venn diagram is a widely used diagram style that shows the logical relation between sets, popularized by John Venn (1834–1923) in the 1880s. The diagrams are used to teach elementary set theory, and to illustrate simple set relationships in probability, logic, statistics, linguistics and computer science. A Venn diagram uses simple closed curves drawn on a plane to represent sets. Very often, these curves are circles or ellipses. Similar ideas had been proposed before Venn. Christian Weise in 1712 (''Nucleus Logicoe Wiesianoe'') and Leonhard Euler ('' Letters to a German Princess'') in 1768, for instance, came up with similar ideas. The idea was popularised by Venn in ''Symbolic Logic'', Chapter V "Diagrammatic Representation", 1881. Details A Venn diagram may also be called a ''set diagram'' or ''logic diagram''. It is a diagram that shows ''all'' possible logical relations between a finite collection of different sets. These diagrams depict elements as points in th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm () is a finite sequence of rigorous instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are used as specifications for performing calculations and data processing. More advanced algorithms can perform automated deductions (referred to as automated reasoning) and use mathematical and logical tests to divert the code execution through various routes (referred to as automated decisionmaking). Using human characteristics as descriptors of machines in metaphorical ways was already practiced by Alan Turing with terms such as "memory", "search" and "stimulus". In contrast, a heuristic is an approach to problem solving that may not be fully specified or may not guarantee correct or optimal results, especially in problem domains where there is no welldefined correct or optimal result. As an effective method, an algorithm can be expressed within a finite amount of sp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Venn 1881 P 115116 Pasteup
Venn is a surname and a given name. It may refer to: Given name * Venn Eyre (died 1777), Archdeacon of Carlisle, Cumbria, England * Venn Pilcher (1879–1961), Anglican bishop, writer, and translator of hymns * Venn Young (1929–1993), New Zealand politician Surname * Albert Venn (1867–1908), American lacrosse player * Anne Venn (1620s–1654), English religious radical and diarist * Blair Venn, Australian actor * Charles Venn (born 1973), British actor * Harry Venn (1844–1908), Australian politician * Henry Venn (Church Missionary Society) the younger (17961873), secretary of the Church Missionary Society, grandson of Henry Venn * Henry Venn (Clapham Sect) the elder (1725–1797), English evangelical minister * Horace Venn (1892–1953), English cricketer * John Venn (1834–1923), British logician and the inventor of Venn diagrams, son of Henry Venn the younger * John Venn (academic) (died 1687), English academic administrator * John Venn (politician) (1586–1650), Engl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

John Venn
John Venn, Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, FSA (4 August 1834 – 4 April 1923) was an English mathematician, logician and philosopher noted for introducing Venn diagrams, which are used in logic, set theory, probability, statistics, and computer science. In 1866, Venn published ''The Logic of Chance'', a groundbreaking book which espoused the frequency theory of probability, arguing that probability should be determined by how often something is forecast to occur as opposed to "educated" assumptions. Venn then further developed George Boole's theories in the 1881 work ''Symbolic Logic'', where he highlighted what would become known as Venn diagrams. Life and career John Venn was born on 4 August 1834 in Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, to Martha Sykes and Rev. Henry Venn (Church Missionary Society), Henry Venn, who was the rector of the parish of Drypool. His mother died when he was three years old. Venn was descended from a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Syllogism
A syllogism ( grcgre, συλλογισμός, ''syllogismos'', 'conclusion, inference') is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true. In its earliest form (defined by Aristotle in his 350 BCE book '' Prior Analytics''), a syllogism arises when two true premises (propositions or statements) validly imply a conclusion, or the main point that the argument aims to get across. For example, knowing that all men are mortal (major premise) and that Socrates is a man (minor premise), we may validly conclude that Socrates is mortal. Syllogistic arguments are usually represented in a threeline form: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal.In antiquity, two rival syllogistic theories existed: Aristotelian syllogism and Stoic syllogism. From the Middle Ages onwards, ''categorical syllogism'' and ''syllogism'' were usually used interchangeably. Thi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Categorical Proposition
In logic, a categorical proposition, or categorical statement, is a proposition that asserts or denies that all or some of the members of one category (the ''subject term'') are included in another (the ''predicate term''). The study of arguments using categorical statements (i.e., syllogisms) forms an important branch of deductive reasoning that began with the Ancient Greeks. The Ancient Greeks such as Aristotle identified four primary distinct types of categorical proposition and gave them standard forms (now often called ''A'', ''E'', ''I'', and ''O''). If, abstractly, the subject category is named ''S'' and the predicate category is named ''P'', the four standard forms are: *All ''S'' are ''P''. (''A'' form, \forall _\rightarrow P_xequiv \forall neg S_\lor P_x/math>) *No ''S'' are ''P''. (''E'' form, \forall _\rightarrow \neg P_xequiv \forall neg S_\lor \neg P_x/math>) *Some ''S'' are ''P''. (''I'' form, \exists _\land P_x/math>) *Some ''S'' are not ''P''. (''O'' form, \ex ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 