Euclidean Domain
In mathematics, more specifically in ring theory, a Euclidean domain (also called a Euclidean ring) is an integral domain that can be endowed with a Euclidean function which allows a suitable generalization of the Euclidean division of integers. This generalized Euclidean algorithm can be put to many of the same uses as Euclid's original algorithm in the ring of integers: in any Euclidean domain, one can apply the Euclidean algorithm to compute the greatest common divisor of any two elements. In particular, the greatest common divisor of any two elements exists and can be written as a linear combination of them (Bézout's identity). Also every ideal in a Euclidean domain is principal, which implies a suitable generalization of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic: every Euclidean domain is a unique factorization domain. It is important to compare the class of Euclidean domains with the larger class of principal ideal domains (PIDs). An arbitrary PID has much the same ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Extended Euclidean Algorithm
In arithmetic and computer programming, the extended Euclidean algorithm is an extension to the Euclidean algorithm, and computes, in addition to the greatest common divisor (gcd) of integers ''a'' and ''b'', also the coefficients of Bézout's identity, which are integers ''x'' and ''y'' such that : ax + by = \gcd(a, b). This is a certifying algorithm, because the gcd is the only number that can simultaneously satisfy this equation and divide the inputs. It allows one to compute also, with almost no extra cost, the quotients of ''a'' and ''b'' by their greatest common divisor. also refers to a very similar algorithm for computing the polynomial greatest common divisor and the coefficients of Bézout's identity of two univariate polynomials. The extended Euclidean algorithm is particularly useful when ''a'' and ''b'' are coprime. With that provision, ''x'' is the modular multiplicative inverse of ''a'' modulo ''b'', and ''y'' is the modular multiplicative inverse of ''b'' mod ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field Norm
In mathematics, the (field) norm is a particular mapping defined in field theory, which maps elements of a larger field into a subfield. Formal definition Let ''K'' be a field and ''L'' a finite extension (and hence an algebraic extension) of ''K''. The field ''L'' is then a finite dimensional vector space over ''K''. Multiplication by α, an element of ''L'', :m_\alpha\colon L\to L :m_\alpha (x) = \alpha x, is a ''K''linear transformation of this vector space into itself. The norm, N''L''/''K''(''α''), is defined as the determinant of this linear transformation. If ''L''/''K'' is a Galois extension, one may compute the norm of α ∈ ''L'' as the product of all the Galois conjugates of α: :\operatorname_(\alpha)=\prod_ \sigma(\alpha), where Gal(''L''/''K'') denotes the Galois group of ''L''/''K''. (Note that there may be a repetition in the terms of the product.) For a general field extension ''L''/''K'', and nonzero α in ''L'', let ''σ''(''α''), ..., σ(''α'') ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gaussian Integer
In number theory, a Gaussian integer is a complex number whose real and imaginary parts are both integers. The Gaussian integers, with ordinary addition and multiplication of complex numbers, form an integral domain, usually written as \mathbf /math> or \Z Gaussian integers share many properties with integers: they form a Euclidean domain, and have thus a Euclidean division and a Euclidean algorithm; this implies unique factorization and many related properties. However, Gaussian integers do not have a total ordering that respects arithmetic. Gaussian integers are algebraic integers and form the simplest ring of quadratic integers. Gaussian integers are named after the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. Basic definitions The Gaussian integers are the set :\mathbf \, \qquad \text i^2 = 1. In other words, a Gaussian integer is a complex number such that its real and imaginary parts are both integers. Since the Gaussian integers are closed under addition and mu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Absolute Value
In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number x, is the nonnegative value without regard to its sign. Namely, , x, =x if is a positive number, and , x, =x if x is negative (in which case negating x makes x positive), and For example, the absolute value of 3 and the absolute value of −3 is The absolute value of a number may be thought of as its distance from zero. Generalisations of the absolute value for real numbers occur in a wide variety of mathematical settings. For example, an absolute value is also defined for the complex numbers, the quaternions, ordered rings, fields and vector spaces. The absolute value is closely related to the notions of magnitude, distance, and norm in various mathematical and physical contexts. Terminology and notation In 1806, JeanRobert Argand introduced the term ''module'', meaning ''unit of measure'' in French, specifically for the ''complex'' absolute value,Oxford English Dictionary, Draft Revision, June 2 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quotient Ring
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a quotient ring, also known as factor ring, difference ring or residue class ring, is a construction quite similar to the quotient group in group theory and to the quotient space in linear algebra. It is a specific example of a quotient, as viewed from the general setting of universal algebra. Starting with a ring and a twosided ideal in , a new ring, the quotient ring , is constructed, whose elements are the cosets of in subject to special and operations. (Only the fraction slash "/" is used in quotient ring notation, not a horizontal fraction bar.) Quotient rings are distinct from the socalled "quotient field", or field of fractions, of an integral domain as well as from the more general "rings of quotients" obtained by localization. Formal quotient ring construction Given a ring and a twosided ideal in , we may define an equivalence relation on as follows: : if and only if is in . Using the ideal properties, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wellordered Set
In mathematics, a wellorder (or wellordering or wellorder relation) on a set ''S'' is a total order on ''S'' with the property that every nonempty subset of ''S'' has a least element in this ordering. The set ''S'' together with the wellorder relation is then called a wellordered set. In some academic articles and textbooks these terms are instead written as wellorder, wellordered, and wellordering or well order, well ordered, and well ordering. Every nonempty wellordered set has a least element. Every element ''s'' of a wellordered set, except a possible greatest element, has a unique successor (next element), namely the least element of the subset of all elements greater than ''s''. There may be elements besides the least element which have no predecessor (see below for an example). A wellordered set ''S'' contains for every subset ''T'' with an upper bound a least upper bound, namely the least element of the subset of all upper bounds of ''T'' in ''S''. If ≤ i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Domain Of A Function
In mathematics, the domain of a function is the set of inputs accepted by the function. It is sometimes denoted by \operatorname(f) or \operatornamef, where is the function. More precisely, given a function f\colon X\to Y, the domain of is . Note that in modern mathematical language, the domain is part of the definition of a function rather than a property of it. In the special case that and are both subsets of \R, the function can be graphed in the Cartesian coordinate system. In this case, the domain is represented on the axis of the graph, as the projection of the graph of the function onto the axis. For a function f\colon X\to Y, the set is called the codomain, and the set of values attained by the function (which is a subset of ) is called its range or image. Any function can be restricted to a subset of its domain. The restriction of f \colon X \to Y to A, where A\subseteq X, is written as \left. f \_A \colon A \to Y. Natural domain If a real function ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Unit (ring Theory)
In algebra, a unit of a ring is an invertible element for the multiplication of the ring. That is, an element of a ring is a unit if there exists in such that vu = uv = 1, where is the multiplicative identity; the element is unique for this property and is called the multiplicative inverse of . The set of units of forms a group under multiplication, called the group of units or unit group of . Other notations for the unit group are , , and (from the German term ). Less commonly, the term ''unit'' is sometimes used to refer to the element of the ring, in expressions like ''ring with a unit'' or ''unit ring'', and also unit matrix. Because of this ambiguity, is more commonly called the "unity" or the "identity" of the ring, and the phrases "ring with unity" or a "ring with identity" may be used to emphasize that one is considering a ring instead of a rng. Examples The multiplicative identity and its additive inverse are always units. More generally, any root o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

American Mathematical Monthly
''The American Mathematical Monthly'' is a mathematical journal founded by Benjamin Finkel in 1894. It is published ten times each year by Taylor & Francis for the Mathematical Association of America. The ''American Mathematical Monthly'' is an expository journal intended for a wide audience of mathematicians, from undergraduate students to research professionals. Articles are chosen on the basis of their broad interest and reviewed and edited for quality of exposition as well as content. In this the ''American Mathematical Monthly'' fulfills a different role from that of typical mathematical research journals. The ''American Mathematical Monthly'' is the most widely read mathematics journal in the world according to records on JSTOR. Tables of contents with article abstracts from 1997–2010 are availablonline The MAA gives the Lester R. Ford Awards annually to "authors of articles of expository excellence" published in the ''American Mathematical Monthly''. Editors *2022� ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians AlBiruni and Sharaf alDin alTusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subclass (set Theory)
In set theory and its applications throughout mathematics, a subclass is a class contained in some other class in the same way that a subset is a set contained in some other set. That is, given classes ''A'' and ''B'', ''A'' is a subclass of ''B'' if and only if every member of ''A'' is also a member of ''B''. If ''A'' and ''B'' are sets, then of course ''A'' is also a subset of ''B''. In fact, when using a definition of classes that requires them to be firstorder definable, it is enough that ''B'' be a set; the axiom of specification essentially says that ''A'' must then also be a set. As with subsets, the empty set is a subclass of every class, and any class is a subclass of itself. But additionally, every class is a subclass of the class of all sets. Accordingly, the subclass relation makes the collection of all classes into a Boolean lattice, which the subset relation does not do for the collection of all sets. Instead, the collection of all sets is an ideal Ideal may refer to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 