Elementary Arithmetic
The operators in elementary arithmetic are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The operators can be applied on both real numbers and imaginary numbers. Each kind of number is represented on a number line designated to the type. Digits Digits are the set of symbols used to represent numbers. In a numeral system, each digit represents a value. The Arabic numerals (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) are the most common set of symbols, and the most frequently used form of these digits is the Western style. A numeral system defines the value of all numbers that contain more than one digit, most often by adding the value of adjacent digits. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system includes positional notation to determine the value of any numeral. In this type of system, the increase in value of an additional digit includes one or more multiplications with the radix value and the result is added to the value of an adjacent digit. For example, with Arabic numerals, the radix va ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Arithmetic Symbols
Arithmetic () is an elementary part of mathematics that consists of the study of the properties of the traditional operations on numbers—addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and extraction of roots. In the 19th century, Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano formalized arithmetic with his Peano axioms, which are highly important to the field of mathematical logic today. History The prehistory of arithmetic is limited to a small number of artifacts, which may indicate the conception of addition and subtraction, the bestknown being the Ishango bone from central Africa, dating from somewhere between 20,000 and 18,000 BC, although its interpretation is disputed. The earliest written records indicate the Egyptians and Babylonians used all the elementary arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as early as 2000 BC. These artifacts do not always reveal the specific process used for solving problems, but the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Plus Sign
The plus and minus signs, and , are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative, respectively. In addition, represents the operation of addition, which results in a sum, while represents subtraction, resulting in a difference. Their use has been extended to many other meanings, more or less analogous. ''Plus'' and ''minus'' are Latin terms meaning "more" and "less", respectively. History Though the signs now seem as familiar as the alphabet or the HinduArabic numerals, they are not of great antiquity. The Egyptian hieroglyphic sign for addition, for example, resembled a pair of legs walking in the direction in which the text was written ( Egyptian could be written either from right to left or left to right), with the reverse sign indicating subtraction: Nicole Oresme's manuscripts from the 14th century show what may be one of the earliest uses of as a sign for plus. In early 15th century Europe, the letters "P" and "M" were generally ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebra
Algebra () is one of the broad areas of mathematics. Roughly speaking, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols in formulas; it is a unifying thread of almost all of mathematics. Elementary algebra deals with the manipulation of variables (commonly represented by Roman letters) as if they were numbers and is therefore essential in all applications of mathematics. Abstract algebra is the name given, mostly in education, to the study of algebraic structures such as groups, rings, and fields (the term is no more in common use outside educational context). Linear algebra, which deals with linear equations and linear mappings, is used for modern presentations of geometry, and has many practical applications (in weather forecasting, for example). There are many areas of mathematics that belong to algebra, some having "algebra" in their name, such as commutative algebra, and some not, such as Galois theory. The word ''algebra'' is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multiplication And Repeated Addition
In mathematics education, there was a debate on the issue of whether the operation of multiplication should be taught as being a form of repeated addition. Participants in the debate brought up multiple perspectives, including axioms of arithmetic, pedagogy, learning and instructional design, history of mathematics, philosophy of mathematics, and computerbased mathematics. Background of the debate In the early 1990s Leslie Steffe proposed the counting scheme children use to assimilate multiplication into their mathematical knowledge. Jere Confrey contrasted the counting scheme with the splitting conjecture. Confrey suggested that counting and splitting are two separate, independent cognitive primitives. This sparked academic discussions in the form of conference presentations, articles and book chapters. The debate originated with the wider spread of curricula that emphasized scaling, zooming, folding and measuring mathematical tasks in the early years. Such tasks both require and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

William A
William is a male given name of Germanic origin.Hanks, Hardcastle and Hodges, ''Oxford Dictionary of First Names'', Oxford University Press, 2nd edition, , p. 276. It became very popular in the English language after the Norman conquest of England in 1066,All Things William"Meaning & Origin of the Name"/ref> and remained so throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era. It is sometimes abbreviated "Wm." Shortened familiar versions in English include Will, Wills, Willy, Willie, Bill, and Billy. A common Irish form is Liam. Scottish diminutives include Wull, Willie or Wullie (as in Oor Wullie or the play ''Douglas''). Female forms are Willa, Willemina, Wilma and Wilhelmina. Etymology William is related to the given name ''Wilhelm'' (cf. ProtoGermanic ᚹᛁᛚᛃᚨᚺᛖᛚᛗᚨᛉ, ''*Wiljahelmaz'' > German '' Wilhelm'' and Old Norse ᚢᛁᛚᛋᛅᚼᛅᛚᛘᛅᛋ, ''Vilhjálmr''). By regular sound changes, the native, inherited English form of the name sho ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Investigations In Numbers, Data, And Space
Investigations in Numbers, Data, and Space is a K–5 mathematics curriculum, developed at TERC in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. The curriculum is often referred to as ''Investigations'' or simply ''TERC''. Patterned after the NCTM standards for mathematics, it is among the most widely used of the new reform mathematics curricula. As opposed to referring to textbooks and having teachers impose methods for solving arithmetic problems, the TERC program uses a constructivist approach that encourages students to develop their own understanding of mathematics. The curriculum underwent a major revision in 2005–2007. History ''Investigations'' was developed between 1990 and 1998. It was just one of a number of reform mathematics curricula initially funded by a National Science Foundation grant. The goals of the project raised opposition to the curriculum from critics (both parents and mathematics teachers) who objected to the emphasis on conceptual learning instead of ins ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Reform Mathematics
Reform mathematics is an approach to mathematics education, particularly in North America. It is based on principles explained in 1989 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). The NCTM document ''Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics'' (''CESSM'') set forth a vision for K–12 (ages 5–18) mathematics education in the United States and Canada. The ''CESSM'' recommendations were adopted by many local and federallevel education agencies during the 1990s. In 2000, the NCTM revised its ''CESSM'' with the publication of '' Principles and Standards for School Mathematics'' (''PSSM''). Like those in the first publication, the updated recommendations became the basis for many states' mathematics standards, and the method in textbooks developed by many federallyfunded projects. The ''CESSM'' deemphasised manual arithmetic in favor of students developing their own conceptual thinking and problem solving. The ''PSSM'' presents a more balanced view, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Traditional Mathematics
Traditional mathematics (sometimes classical math education) was the predominant method of mathematics education in the United States in the earlytomid 20th century. This contrasts with nontraditional approaches to math education. A comparison of traditional and reform mathematics curricula in an eighthgrade classroom Education, Summer 2003 by Alsup, John K., Sprigler, Mark J. Traditional mathematics education has been challenged by several reform movements over the last several decades, notably , a now largely abandoned and discredited set of alternative methods, and most recently reform or standardsbas ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

United States Of America
The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, nine Minor Outlying Islands, and 326 Indian reservations. The United States is also in free association with three Pacific Island sovereign states: the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. It is the world's thirdlargest country by both land and total area. It shares land borders with Canada to its north and with Mexico to its south and has maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, Russia, and other nations. With a population of over 333 million, it is the most populous country in the Americas and the third most populous in the world. The national capital of the United States is Washington, D.C. and its most populous city and principal financial center is New York City. PaleoAmer ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Negative Number
In mathematics, a negative number represents an opposite. In the real number system, a negative number is a number that is less than zero. Negative numbers are often used to represent the magnitude of a loss or deficiency. A debt that is owed may be thought of as a negative asset. If a quantity, such as the charge on an electron, may have either of two opposite senses, then one may choose to distinguish between those senses—perhaps arbitrarily—as ''positive'' and ''negative''. Negative numbers are used to describe values on a scale that goes below zero, such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales for temperature. The laws of arithmetic for negative numbers ensure that the commonsense idea of an opposite is reflected in arithmetic. For example, −(−3) = 3 because the opposite of an opposite is the original value. Negative numbers are usually written with a minus sign in front. For example, −3 represents a negative quantity with a magnitude of three, and is pronounced "min ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Plus And Minus Signs
The plus and minus signs, and , are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative, respectively. In addition, represents the operation of addition, which results in a sum, while represents subtraction, resulting in a difference. Their use has been extended to many other meanings, more or less analogous. ''Plus'' and ''minus'' are Latin terms meaning "more" and "less", respectively. History Though the signs now seem as familiar as the alphabet or the HinduArabic numerals, they are not of great antiquity. The Egyptian hieroglyphic sign for addition, for example, resembled a pair of legs walking in the direction in which the text was written ( Egyptian could be written either from right to left or left to right), with the reverse sign indicating subtraction: Nicole Oresme's manuscripts from the 14th century show what may be one of the earliest uses of as a sign for plus. In early 15th century Europe, the letters "P" and "M" were generally ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

One To One Correspondence
In mathematics, a bijection, also known as a bijective function, onetoone correspondence, or invertible function, is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set. There are no unpaired elements. In mathematical terms, a bijective function is a onetoone (injective) and onto (surjective) mapping of a set ''X'' to a set ''Y''. The term ''onetoone correspondence'' must not be confused with ''onetoone function'' (an injective function; see figures). A bijection from the set ''X'' to the set ''Y'' has an inverse function from ''Y'' to ''X''. If ''X'' and ''Y'' are finite sets, then the existence of a bijection means they have the same number of elements. For infinite sets, the picture is more complicated, leading to the concept of cardinal number—a way to distinguish the various sizes of infinite sets. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 