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Education In Spain
Education in Spain is regulated by the ''Ley Orgánica 8/2013, de 9 de diciembre, para la mejora de la calidad educativa'' (LOMCE, Organic Law for the improvement of educational quality) that expands upon Article 27 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The Spanish education system is compulsory and free for all children aged between 6 and 16 years and is supported by the national government together with the governments of each of the country's 17 autonomous communities. In Spain, primary school and secondary school are considered basic (obligatory) education. These are '' Primaria'' (6–12 years old), which is the Spanish equivalent of elementary school and the first year of middle school, and '' Secundaria'' (12–16 years old), which would be a mixture of the last two years of middle school and the first two years of High school in the United States. Spain is working towards reforming vocational education and modernizing education to halt and reverse the rising unemploymen ...
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Protestant
Protestantism is a branch of Christianity that follows the theological tenets of the Protestant Reformation, a movement that began seeking to reform the Catholic Church from within in the 16th century against what its followers perceived to be growing errors, abuses, and discrepancies within it. Protestantism emphasizes the Christian believer's justification by God in faith alone (') rather than by a combination of faith with good works as in Catholicism; the teaching that salvation comes by divine grace or "unmerited favor" only ('); the priesthood of all faithful believers in the Church; and the '' sola scriptura'' ("scripture alone") that posits the Bible as the sole infallible source of authority for Christian faith and practice. Most Protestants, with the exception of Anglo-Papalism, reject the Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy, but disagree among themselves regarding the number of sacraments, the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and matters of ecclesiasti ...
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Selectividad
is the popular name given to the Spanish University Admission Tests ("", E.v.A.U.), a non-compulsory exam taken by students after secondary school, necessary to get into University. Students must take six 90-minute written exams over three days in June or September, consisting of common and specific subjects taken in "" (the last two non-compulsory years of secondary education). exams are set by the Public Universities of each autonomous community and allow students access to the Spanish university system. Subjects (before 2009) Common Subjects # Spanish language and literature # First foreign language (mainly English, non oral, rarely French, German, Italian or Portuguese) # History of Spain # Galician, Catalan or Valencian and Basque are also common subjects in Galicia; Catalonia and Balearic Islands, Valencia; and the Basque Country, respectively. Selectividad or Scholastic Aptitude Test is accepted by USA universities if accompanied by TOEFL English exam. Specific ...
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Spanish Baccalaureate
The Spanish Baccalaureate ( es, Bachillerato) is the post-16 stage of education in Spain, comparable to the A Levels/Higher (Scottish) in the UK, the French Baccalaureate in France or the International Baccalaureate. It follows the ESO (compulsory stage of secondary education). After taking the ''Bachillerato'', a student may enter vocational training (Higher-level Training Cycles, ''Ciclos Formativos de Grado Superior'') or take the "'' Selectividad''" tests for admission to university. There are two parts, a core curriculum with the compulsory subjects and a specialist part with a number of pre-selected branches to choose from. History In Spanish (and Hispano-American) education from the 13th century up to the 17th or 18th century, the term ''Bachiller'' referred to the lower grade of university studies, enabling entry to a profession without reaching the higher grades of ''licenciado'' or ''doctorado''. Before 1953 in Spain, the term ''bachillerato'' covered all of secondary ...
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Liberal Studies
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") is the traditional academic course in Western higher education. ''Liberal arts'' takes the term '' art'' in the sense of a learned skill rather than specifically the fine arts. ''Liberal arts education'' can refer to studies in a liberal arts degree course or to a university education more generally. Such a course of study contrasts with those that are principally vocational, professional, or technical. History Before they became known by their Latin variations (, , ), the liberal arts were the continuation of Ancient Greek methods of enquiry that began with a "desire for a universal understanding." Pythagoras argued that there was a mathematical and geometrical harmony to the cosmos or the universe; his followers linked the four arts of astronomy, mathematics, geometry, and music into one area of study to form the "disciplines of the mediaeval quadrivium". In 4th-century B.C.E. Athens, the governmen ...
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Social Science
Social science is one of the branches of science, devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. In addition to sociology, it now encompasses a wide array of academic disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology, economics, human geography, linguistics, management science, communication science and political science. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are often eclectic, using multiple methodologies (for inst ...
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International Standard Classification Of Education
The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education maintained by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). It is a member of the international family of economic and social classifications of the United Nations. History The ISCED was designed in the early 1970s to serve as an instrument suitable for assembling, compiling and presenting statistics of education both within individual countries and internationally. The first version, known as ISCED 1976, was approved by the International Conference on Education (Geneva, 1975), and was subsequently endorsed by UNESCO’s 19th General Conference in 1976. The second version, known as ISCED 1997, was approved by the UNESCO General Conference at its 29th session in November 1997 as part of efforts to increase the international comparability of education statistics. It covered primarily two cross-classification variables: ' ...
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Asturian Language
Asturian (; ,Art. 1 de lLey 1/1998, de 23 de marzo, de uso y promoción del bable/asturiano [Law 1/93, of March 23, on the Use and Promotion of the Asturian Language/nowiki>] formerly also known as ) is a West Iberian languages, West Iberian Romance languages, Romance language spoken in the Principality of Asturias, Spain. Asturian is part of a wider linguistic group, the Asturleonese languages. The number of speakers is estimated at 100,000 (native) and 450,000 (second language). The dialects of the Astur-Leonese language family are traditionally classified in three groups: Western, Central, and Eastern. For historical and demographic reasons, the standard is based on Central Asturian. Asturian has a distinct grammar, dictionary, and orthography. It is regulated by the Academy of the Asturian Language. Although it is not an official language of Spain it is protected under the Statute of Autonomy of Asturias and is an elective language in schools. For much of its history, ...
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Aranese Dialect
Aranese ( oc, aranés) is a standardized form of the Pyrenean Gascon variety of the Occitan language spoken in the Val d'Aran, in northwestern Catalonia close to the Spanish border with France, where it is one of the three official languages beside Catalan and Spanish. In 2010, it was declared the third official language in Catalonia by the Parliament of Catalonia. The official names of towns in Val d'Aran are Occitan; for example, the Occitan name '' Vielha'' is used on maps and road signs instead of the Catalan and Spanish ''Viella''. Official status The Aran Valley is the only territory in the language domain of Occitania where Occitan has official recognition and institutional protection. According to Law 35/2010 passed by the Parliament of Catalonia, Occitan is considered an official language not only in Val d'Aran, but in all of Catalonia, and is given precedence in the territory where it is spoken (Val d'Aran). Article 3.4 of Catalonia's 1979 Statute of Autonomy ...
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Aragonese Language
Aragonese ( ; in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by about 12,000 people as of 2011, in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça. It is the only modern language which survived from medieval Navarro-Aragonese in a form distinctly different from Spanish. Historically, people referred to the language as ('talk' or 'speech'). Native Aragonese people usually refer to it by the names of its local dialects such as (from Valle de Hecho) or (from the Benasque Valley). History Aragonese, which developed in portions of the Ebro basin, can be traced back to the High Middle Ages. It spread throughout the Pyrenees to areas where languages similar to modern Basque might have been previously spoken. The Kingdom of Aragon (formed by the counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza) expanded southward from the mountains, pushing the Moors ...
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Valencian
Valencian () or Valencian language () is the official, historical and traditional name used in the Valencian Community (Spain), and unofficially in the El Carche comarca in Murcia (Spain), to refer to the Romance language also known as Catalan.«Otra sentencia equipara valenciano y catalán en las oposiciones, y ya van 13.»
''20 minutos'', 7 January 2008.
Decreto 84/2008, de 6 de junio, ...
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