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De Morgan Algebra
__NOTOC__ In mathematics, a De Morgan algebra (named after Augustus De Morgan, a British mathematician and logician) is a structure ''A'' = (A, ∨, ∧, 0, 1, ¬) such that: * (''A'', ∨, ∧, 0, 1) is a bounded distributive lattice, and * ¬ is a De Morgan involution: ¬(''x'' ∧ ''y'') = ¬''x'' ∨ ¬''y'' and ¬¬''x'' = ''x''. (i.e. an involution that additionally satisfies De Morgan's laws) In a De Morgan algebra, the laws * ¬''x'' ∨ ''x'' = 1 (law of the excluded middle), and * ¬''x'' ∧ ''x'' = 0 (law of noncontradiction) do not always hold. In the presence of the De Morgan laws, either law implies the other, and an algebra which satisfies them becomes a Boolean algebra. Remark: It follows that ¬(x ∨ y) = ¬x ∧ ¬y, ¬1 = 0 and ¬0 = 1 (e.g. ¬1 = ¬1 ∨ 0 = ¬1 ∨ ¬¬0 = ¬(1 ∧ ¬0) = ¬¬0 = 0). Thus ¬ is a ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ...
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Regular Expression
A regular expression (shortened as regex or regexp; sometimes referred to as rational expression) is a sequence of characters that specifies a search pattern in text. Usually such patterns are used by string-searching algorithms for "find" or "find and replace" operations on strings, or for input validation. Regular expression techniques are developed in theoretical computer science and formal language theory. The concept of regular expressions began in the 1950s, when the American mathematician Stephen Cole Kleene formalized the concept of a regular language. They came into common use with Unix text-processing utilities. Different syntaxes for writing regular expressions have existed since the 1980s, one being the POSIX standard and another, widely used, being the Perl syntax. Regular expressions are used in search engines, in search and replace dialogs of word processors and text editors, in text processing utilities such as sed and AWK, and in lexical analysis. ...
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Algebra
Algebra () is one of the broad areas of mathematics. Roughly speaking, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols in formulas; it is a unifying thread of almost all of mathematics. Elementary algebra deals with the manipulation of variables (commonly represented by Roman letters) as if they were numbers and is therefore essential in all applications of mathematics. Abstract algebra is the name given, mostly in education, to the study of algebraic structures such as groups, rings, and fields (the term is no more in common use outside educational context). Linear algebra, which deals with linear equations and linear mappings, is used for modern presentations of geometry, and has many practical applications (in weather forecasting, for example). There are many areas of mathematics that belong to algebra, some having "algebra" in their name, such as commutative algebra, and some not, such as Galois theory. The word ''alge ...
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Orthocomplemented Lattice
In the mathematical discipline of order theory, a complemented lattice is a bounded lattice (with least element 0 and greatest element 1), in which every element ''a'' has a complement, i.e. an element ''b'' satisfying ''a'' ∨ ''b'' = 1 and ''a'' ∧ ''b'' = 0. Complements need not be unique. A relatively complemented lattice is a lattice such that every interval 'c'', ''d'' viewed as a bounded lattice in its own right, is a complemented lattice. An orthocomplementation on a complemented lattice is an involution that is order-reversing and maps each element to a complement. An orthocomplemented lattice satisfying a weak form of the modular law is called an orthomodular lattice. In distributive lattices, complements are unique. Every complemented distributive lattice has a unique orthocomplementation and is in fact a Boolean algebra. Definition and basic properties A complemented lattice is a bounded lattice (with least element 0 ...
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Ockham Algebras
In mathematics, an Ockham algebra is a bounded distributive lattice with a dual endomorphism, that is, an operation ~ satisfying ~(''x'' ∧ ''y'') = ~''x'' ∨ ~''y'', ~(''x'' ∨ ''y'') = ~''x'' ∧ ~''y'', ~0 = 1, ~1 = 0. They were introduced by , and were named after William of Ockham by . Ockham algebras form a variety. Examples of Ockham algebras include Boolean algebras, De Morgan algebra __NOTOC__ In mathematics, a De Morgan algebra (named after Augustus De Morgan, a British mathematician and logician) is a structure ''A'' = (A, ∨, ∧, 0, 1, ¬) such that: * (''A'', ∨, ∧, 0,&nbs ...s, Kleene algebras, and Stone algebras. References * (pd availablefrom GDZ) * * * {{algebra-stub Algebraic logic * ...
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Stone Algebra
In mathematics, a Stone algebra, or Stone lattice, is a pseudo-complemented distributive lattice such that ''a''* ∨ ''a''** = 1. They were introduced by and named after Marshall Harvey Stone. Boolean algebras are Stone algebras, and Stone algebras are Ockham algebras. Examples: * The open-set lattice of an extremally disconnected space is a Stone algebra. * The lattice of positive divisors of a given positive integer is a Stone lattice. See also * De Morgan algebra * Heyting algebra In mathematics, a Heyting algebra (also known as pseudo-Boolean algebra) is a bounded lattice (with join and meet operations written ∨ and ∧ and with least element 0 and greatest element 1) equipped with a binary operation ''a'' → ''b'' of '' ... References * * * * Universal algebra Lattice theory Ockham algebras {{algebra-stub ...
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Pseudocomplement
In mathematics, particularly in order theory, a pseudocomplement is one generalization of the notion of complement. In a lattice ''L'' with bottom element 0, an element ''x'' ∈ ''L'' is said to have a ''pseudocomplement'' if there exists a greatest element ''x''* ∈ ''L'' with the property that ''x'' ∧ ''x''* = 0. More formally, ''x''* = max. The lattice ''L'' itself is called a pseudocomplemented lattice if every element of ''L'' is pseudocomplemented. Every pseudocomplemented lattice is necessarily bounded, i.e. it has a 1 as well. Since the pseudocomplement is unique by definition (if it exists), a pseudocomplemented lattice can be endowed with a unary operation * mapping every element to its pseudocomplement; this structure is sometimes called a ''p''-algebra. However this latter term may have other meanings in other areas of mathematics. Properties In a ''p''-algebra ''L'', for all x, y \in L: * The map ''x'' ↦ ''x''* is antitone. In particular, 0* = 1 and 1* = 0. * Th ...
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Greatest Element
In mathematics, especially in order theory, the greatest element of a subset S of a partially ordered set (poset) is an element of S that is greater than every other element of S. The term least element is defined dually, that is, it is an element of S that is smaller than every other element of S. Definitions Let (P, \leq) be a preordered set and let S \subseteq P. An element g \in P is said to be if g \in S and if it also satisfies: :s \leq g for all s \in S. By using \,\geq\, instead of \,\leq\, in the above definition, the definition of a least element of S is obtained. Explicitly, an element l \in P is said to be if l \in S and if it also satisfies: :l \leq s for all s \in S. If (P, \leq) is even a partially ordered set then S can have at most one greatest element and it can have at most one least element. Whenever a greatest element of S exists and is unique then this element is called greatest element of S. The terminology least element of S is defined simil ...
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Semilattice
In mathematics, a join-semilattice (or upper semilattice) is a partially ordered set that has a join (a least upper bound) for any nonempty finite subset. Dually, a meet-semilattice (or lower semilattice) is a partially ordered set which has a meet (or greatest lower bound) for any nonempty finite subset. Every join-semilattice is a meet-semilattice in the inverse order and vice versa. Semilattices can also be defined algebraically: join and meet are associative, commutative, idempotent binary operations, and any such operation induces a partial order (and the respective inverse order) such that the result of the operation for any two elements is the least upper bound (or greatest lower bound) of the elements with respect to this partial order. A lattice is a partially ordered set that is both a meet- and join-semilattice with respect to the same partial order. Algebraically, a lattice is a set with two associative, commutative idempotent binary operations linked by corre ...
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Ordinal Numbers
In set theory, an ordinal number, or ordinal, is a generalization of ordinal numerals (first, second, th, etc.) aimed to extend enumeration to infinite sets. A finite set can be enumerated by successively labeling each element with the least natural number that has not been previously used. To extend this process to various infinite sets, ordinal numbers are defined more generally as linearly ordered labels that include the natural numbers and have the property that every set of ordinals has a least element (this is needed for giving a meaning to "the least unused element"). This more general definition allows us to define an ordinal number \omega that is greater than every natural number, along with ordinal numbers \omega + 1, \omega + 2, etc., which are even greater than \omega. A linear order such that every subset has a least element is called a well-order. The axiom of choice implies that every set can be well-ordered, and given two well-ordered sets, one is isomorphic ...
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Stephen Cole Kleene
Stephen Cole Kleene ( ; January 5, 1909 – January 25, 1994) was an American mathematician. One of the students of Alonzo Church, Kleene, along with Rózsa Péter, Alan Turing, Emil Post, and others, is best known as a founder of the branch of mathematical logic known as recursion theory, which subsequently helped to provide the foundations of theoretical computer science. Kleene's work grounds the study of computable functions. A number of mathematical concepts are named after him: Kleene hierarchy, Kleene algebra, the Kleene star (Kleene closure), Kleene's recursion theorem and the Kleene fixed-point theorem. He also invented regular expressions in 1951 to describe McCulloch-Pitts neural networks, and made significant contributions to the foundations of mathematical intuitionism. Biography Kleene was awarded a bachelor's degree from Amherst College in 1930. He was awarded a Ph.D. in mathematics from Princeton University in 1934, where his thesis, entitled ''A Theory of Po ...
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Three-valued Logic
In logic, a three-valued logic (also trinary logic, trivalent, ternary, or trilean, sometimes abbreviated 3VL) is any of several many-valued logic systems in which there are three truth values indicating ''true'', ''false'' and some indeterminate third value. This is contrasted with the more commonly known bivalent logics (such as classical sentential or Boolean logic) which provide only for ''true'' and ''false''. Emil Leon Post is credited with first introducing additional logical truth degrees in his 1921 theory of elementary propositions. The conceptual form and basic ideas of three-valued logic were initially published by Jan Łukasiewicz and Clarence Irving Lewis. These were then re-formulated by Grigore Constantin Moisil in an axiomatic algebraic form, and also extended to ''n''-valued logics in 1945. Pre-discovery Around 1910, Charles Sanders Peirce defined a many-valued logic system. He never published it. In fact, he did not even number the three pages of notes whe ...
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