David Hilbert
David Hilbert (; ; 23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician, one of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hilbert discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in many areas, including invariant theory, the calculus of variations, commutative algebra, algebraic number theory, the foundations of geometry, spectral theory of operators and its application to integral equations, mathematical physics, and the foundations of mathematics (particularly proof theory). Hilbert adopted and defended Georg Cantor's set theory and transfinite numbers. In 1900, he presented a collection of problems that set the course for much of the mathematical research of the 20th century. Hilbert and his students contributed significantly to establishing rigor and developed important tools used in modern mathematical physics. Hilbert is known as one of the founders of proof theory and mathematical logic. Life Early life and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Königsberg
Königsberg (, ) was the historic Prussian city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia. Königsberg was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement ''Twangste'' by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusades, and was named in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia. A Baltic port city, it successively became the capital of the Królewiec Voivodeship, the State of the Teutonic Order, the Duchy of Prussia and the provinces of East Prussia and Prussia. Königsberg remained the coronation city of the Prussian monarchy, though the capital was moved to Berlin in 1701. Between the thirteenth and the twentieth centuries, the inhabitants spoke predominantly German, but the multicultural city also had a profound influence upon the Lithuanian and Polish cultures. The city was a publishing center of Lutheran literature, including the first Polish translation of the New Testament, printed in the city in 1551, the first book in Lithuanian and the first Lutheran ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Werner Boy
Werner Boy (; 4 May 1879 − 6 September 1914) was a German mathematician. He was the discoverer and eponym of Boy's surface—a threedimensional projection of the real projective plane without singularities, the first of its kind. He discovered it in 1901 after his thesis adviser, David Hilbert, asked him to prove that it was not possible to immerse the real projective plane in threedimensional space. Boy sketched several models of the surface, and discovered that it could have 3fold rotational symmetry, but was unable to find a parametric model for the surface. It was not until 1978 that Bernard Morin found the first parametrisation, with the aid of computers. After completing his dissertation, Boy worked as a high school teacher in Krefeld, Germany. He later returned to his birth town of Barmen (today Wuppertal Wuppertal (; "''Wupper Dale''") is, with a population of approximately 355,000, the seventhlargest city in North RhineWestphalia as well as the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wallie Abraham Hurwitz
Wallie Abraham Hurwitz (February 18, 1886 in Joplin, Missouri – January 6, 1958 in Ithaca, New York) was an American mathematician who worked on analysis. Hurwitz graduated from the University of Missouri with a bachelor's degree and then went to Harvard to do graduate work. He won a Sheldon Traveling Fellowship, which enabled him to study at the University of Göttingen, where he earned a doctoral degree under Hilbert in 1910. In 1912 Hurwitz joined the mathematics faculty of Cornell University, where he remained until he died in 1958 at age seventyone. His doctoral students include R. H. Cameron and Florence M. Mears. Hurwitz's private library contained nearly three thousand books. This private library had many books on cryptography, several of which were borrowed by the U. S. Navy early in WWII because there were no copies of them in the Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ernst Hellinger
Ernst David Hellinger (September 30, 1883 – March 28, 1950) was a German mathematician. Early years Ernst Hellinger was born on September 30, 1883 in Striegau, Silesia, Germany (now Strzegom, Poland) to Emil and Julie Hellinger. He grew up in Breslau, attended school and graduated from the Gymnasium there in 1902. When he was studying at the Gymnasium, he became fascinated with mathematics, due to excellent mathematics teachers at the school. Academic career After graduating from the Gymnasium, Ernst Hellinger entered the University of Heidelberg, but didn't complete his studies there. After Heidelberg, he studied at the University of Breslau, before completing his doctorate at the University of Göttingen in 1907 with a thesis entitled ''Die Orthogonalinvarianten quadratischer Formen von unendlich vielen Variablen''. At Göttingen he worked with David Hilbert, one of the most influential mathematicians of the 20th century. Hellinger taught at the University of Göttingen (19 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Earle Raymond Hedrick
Earle Raymond Hedrick (September 27, 1876 – February 3, 1943), was an American mathematician and a vicepresident of the University of California. Education and career Hedrick was born in Union City, Indiana. After undergraduate work at the University of Michigan, he obtained a Master of Arts from Harvard University. With a Parker fellowship, he went to Europe and obtained his PhD from Göttingen University in Germany under the supervision of David Hilbert in 1901. He then spent several months at the École Normale Supérieure in France, where he became acquainted with Édouard Goursat, Jacques Hadamard, Jules Tannery, Émile Picard and Paul Émile Appell, before becoming an instructor at Yale University. In 1903, he became professor at the University of Missouri. He moved in 1920 to the University of California, Los Angeles to become head of the department of mathematics. In 1933, he was giving the first graduate lecture on mathematics at UCLA. He became provost and v ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Erich Hecke
Erich Hecke (20 September 1887 – 13 February 1947) was a German mathematician known for his work in number theory and the theory of modular forms. Biography Hecke was born in Buk, Province of Posen, German Empire (now Poznań, Poland). He obtained his doctorate in Göttingen under the supervision of David Hilbert. Kurt Reidemeister and Heinrich Behnke were among his students. In 1933 Hecke signed the '' Loyalty Oath of German Professors to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist State''. Hecke died in Copenhagen, Denmark. André Weil, in the foreword to his text Basic Number Theory says: "To improve upon Hecke, in a treatment along classical lines of the theory of algebraic numbers, would be a futile and impossible task", referring to Hecke's book "Lectures on the Theory of Algebraic Numbers." Research His early work included establishing the functional equation for the Dedekind zeta function, with a proof based on theta functions. The method extended to the Lfunctions ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Alfréd Haar
Alfréd Haar ( hu, Haar Alfréd; 11 October 1885, Budapest – 16 March 1933, Szeged) was a Kingdom of Hungary, Hungarian mathematician. In 1904 he began to study at the University of Göttingen. His doctorate was supervised by David Hilbert. The Haar measure, Haar wavelet, and Haar transform are named in his honor. Between 1912 and 1919 he taught at Franz Joseph University in ClujNapoca, Kolozsvár. Together with Frigyes Riesz, he made the University of Szeged a centre of mathematics. He also founded the ''Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum'' journal together with Riesz. Biography Haar was born to a HungarianJewish''Transcending Tradition: Jewish Mathematicians in German Speaking Academic Culture'', Birgit Bergmann, (Springer 2012), page 63 family in Budapest on 11 October 1885 to parents Ignác Haar and Emma Fuchs. He graduated in 1903 from the secondary school Fasori Gimnázium, Fasori Evangélikus Gimnázium where he was a student of László Rátz. He started his u ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Kurt Grelling
Kurt Grelling (2 March 1886 – September 1942) was a German logician and philosopher, member of the Berlin Circle. Life and work Kurt Grelling was born on 2 March 1886 in Berlin. His father, the Doctor of Jurisprudence Richard Grelling, and his mother, Margarethe (née Simon), were Jewish. Shortly after his arrival in 1905 at University of Göttingen, Grelling began a collaboration with philosopher Leonard Nelson, with whom he tried to solve Russell's paradox, which had shaken the foundations of mathematics when it was announced in 1903. Their 1908 paper included new paradoxes, including a semantic paradox that was named the Grelling–Nelson paradox. He received his doctorate in mathematics from the same university in 1910 with a PhD dissertation on the development of arithmetic in axiomatic set theory, advised by David Hilbert. In a recorded interview with Herbert Enderton, Alfred Tarski mentions a meeting he had with Grelling in 1938, and says that Grelling was the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Paul Funk
Paul Georg Funk (14 April 1886, Vienna – 3 June 1969, Vienna) was an Austrian mathematician who introduced the Funk transform and who worked on the calculus of variations. Biography Born in Vienna in 1886, Paul Funk was the son of a deputy bank manager and went to high school in Baden and Gmunden. Then, studied mathematics in Tübingen, Vienna, and Göttingen, writing his PhD dissertation (''Über Flächen mit lauter geschlossenen geodätischen Linien'', 'On surfaces with many closed geodesic lines') under the supervision of David Hilbert. He got his PhD in 1911 and spent the interwar years (19151939) in Prague as Professor of Mathematics at the . He became an associate professor in 1921 and a professor in 1927. Suspended from his professorship in 1939 on account of his being Jewish, Funk was deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in 1944, where he spent the last months of the war. He was freed in 1945 and became professor at TU Wien TU Wien (TUW; german: T ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rudolf Fueter
Karl Rudolf Fueter (30 June 1880 – 9 August 1950) was a Swiss mathematician, known for his work on number theory. Biography After a year of graduate study of mathematics in Basel, Fueter began study in 1899 at the University of Göttingen and completed his Promotieriung in 1903 with dissertation ''Der Klassenkörper der quadratischen Körper und die komplexe Multiplikation'' under David Hilbert. After his Promotion, Fueter studied for 1 year in Paris, 3 months in Vienna, and 6 months in London. In 1905 he completed his Habilitierung at the University of Marburg. Fueter worked as a docent in 1907/1908 at Marburg and in the winter of 1907/1908 at the Bergakademie Clausthal. He was called to positions as professor ordinarius in 1908 at Basel, in 1913 at the Technische Hochschule Karlsruhe, and in 1916 at the University of Zurich. From 1920 to 1922 he was the rector of the University of Zurich. Fueter did research on algebraic number theory and quaternion analysis ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ludwig Föppl
Karl Ludwig Föppl (27 February 1887 – 13 May 1976) was a German mechanical engineer who succeeded his father, August Föppl as Professor of Technical Mechanics at the Technical University of Munich. During World War I, Föppl worked as a cryptanalyst, initially in Inspectorate 7/VI, and later in the war within General der Nachrichtenaufklärung. By 1940, he was a full member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. Föppl was one of the earliest cryptoanalysts in the Germany Army, working at this profession during both the first and second world wars, eventually becoming Chief of Sixth Army’s Evaluation Office. His work was kept secret from both his family and his colleagues, even his later university assistant Friedrich L. Bauer, who would also become a well known cryptologist in his own right, never knew. In 2005, the work of HilmarDetlef Brückner of the Bavarian State Archive (german: Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv) brought this aspect of Föppl's career to prominence ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Max Dehn
Max Wilhelm Dehn (November 13, 1878 – June 27, 1952) was a German mathematician most famous for his work in geometry, topology and geometric group theory. Born to a Jewish family in Germany, Dehn's early life and career took place in Germany. However, he was forced to retire in 1935 and eventually fled Germany in 1939 and emigrated to the United States. Dehn was a student of David Hilbert, and in his habilitation in 1900 Dehn resolved Hilbert's third problem, making him the first to resolve one of Hilbert's wellknown 23 problems. Dehn's students include OttHeinrich Keller, Ruth Moufang, Wilhelm Magnus, and the artists Dorothea Rockburne and Ruth Asawa. Biography Dehn was born to a family of Jewish origin in Hamburg, Imperial Germany. He studied the foundations of geometry with Hilbert at Göttingen in 1899, and obtained a proof of the Jordan curve theorem for polygons. In 1900 he wrote his dissertation on the role of the Legendre angle sum theorem in axiomatic geome ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 