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DNA Methylation
DNA methylation is a biological process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. Methylation can change the activity of a DNA segment without changing the sequence. When located in a gene promoter, DNA methylation typically acts to repress gene transcription. In mammals, DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is associated with a number of key processes including genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, repression of transposable elements, aging, and carcinogenesis. As of 2016, two nucleobases have been found on which natural, enzymatic DNA methylation takes place: adenine and cytosine. The modified bases are N6-methyladenineD. B. Dunn, J. D. Smith: ''The occurrence of 6-methylaminopurine in deoxyribonucleic acids.'' In: ''Biochem J.'' 68(4), Apr 1958, S. 627–636. PMID 13522672. ., 5-methylcytosineB. F. Vanyushin, S. G. Tkacheva, A. N. Belozersky: ''Rare bases in animal DNA.'' In: ''Nature.'' 225, 1970, S. 948–949. PMID 4391887. and N4 ...
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DNA Methylation
DNA methylation is a biological process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. Methylation can change the activity of a DNA segment without changing the sequence. When located in a gene promoter, DNA methylation typically acts to repress gene transcription. In mammals, DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is associated with a number of key processes including genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, repression of transposable elements, aging, and carcinogenesis. As of 2016, two nucleobases have been found on which natural, enzymatic DNA methylation takes place: adenine and cytosine. The modified bases are N6-methyladenineD. B. Dunn, J. D. Smith: ''The occurrence of 6-methylaminopurine in deoxyribonucleic acids.'' In: ''Biochem J.'' 68(4), Apr 1958, S. 627–636. PMID 13522672. ., 5-methylcytosineB. F. Vanyushin, S. G. Tkacheva, A. N. Belozersky: ''Rare bases in animal DNA.'' In: ''Nature.'' 225, 1970, S. 948–949. PMID 4391887. and N4 ...
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Adenine Methylation
DNA adenine methyltransferase identification, often abbreviated DamID, is a molecular biology protocol used to map the binding sites of DNA- and chromatin-binding proteins in eukaryotes. DamID identifies binding sites by expressing the proposed DNA-binding protein as a fusion protein with DNA methyltransferase. Binding of the protein of interest to DNA localizes the methyltransferase in the region of the binding site. Adenine methylation does not occur naturally in eukaryotes and therefore adenine methylation in any region can be concluded to have been caused by the fusion protein, implying the region is located near a binding site. DamID is an alternate method to ChIP-on-chip or ChIP-seq. Description Principle N6-methyladenine (m6A) is the product of the addition of a methyl group (CH3) at position 6 of the adenine. This modified nucleotide is absent from the vast majority of eukaryotes, with the exception of ''C. elegans'', but is widespread in bacterial genomes, as part o ...
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Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'' () (brewer's yeast or baker's yeast) is a species of yeast (single-celled fungus microorganisms). The species has been instrumental in winemaking, baking, and brewing since ancient times. It is believed to have been originally isolated from the skin of grapes. It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like '' Escherichia coli'' as the model bacterium. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation. ''S. cerevisiae'' cells are round to ovoid, 5–10  μm in diameter. It reproduces by budding. Many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by studying their homologs in yeast; these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes. ''S. cerevisiae'' is currently the only yeast cell known to have Berkeley bodies present, which are involved in particular secretory pathways. Antibodies against ''S. ...
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Caenorhabditis
''Caenorhabditis'' is a genus of nematodes which live in bacteria-rich environments like compost piles, decaying dead animals and rotting fruit. The name comes from Greek: caeno- (καινός (caenos) = new, recent); rhabditis = rod-like (ῥάβδος (rhabdos) = rod, wand). In 1900, Maupas initially named the species '' Rhabditis elegans'', Osche placed it in the subgenus ''Caenorhabditis'' in 1952, and in 1955, Dougherty raised ''Caenorhabditis'' to the status of genus. The genus ''Caenorhabditis'' contains the noted model organism ''Caenorhabditis elegans'' and several other species for which a genome sequence is either available or currently being determined. The two most-studied species in this genus (''C. elegans'' and ''C. briggsae'') are both androdioecious (they have male and hermaphrodite sexes) whereas most other species are gonochoristic (they have male and female sexes). ''C. elegans'' is the type species of the genus. Ecology ''Caenorhabditis'' occupy various ...
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Dictyostelium
''Dictyostelium'' is a genus of single- and multi-celled eukaryotic, phagotrophic bacterivores. Though they are Protista and in no way fungal, they traditionally are known as "slime molds". They are present in most terrestrial ecosystems as a normal and often abundant component of the soil microflora, and play an important role in the maintenance of balanced bacterial populations in soils. The genus ''Dictyostelium'' is in the order Dictyosteliida, the so-called cellular slime molds or social amoebae. In turn the order is in the infraphylum Mycetozoa. Members of the order are Protista of great theoretical interest in biology because they have aspects of both unicellularity and multicellularity. The individual cells in their independent phase are common on organic detritus or in damp soils and caves. In this phase they are amoebae. Typically, the amoebal cells grow separately and wander independently, feeding mainly on bacteria. However, they interact to form multi- ...
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Drosophila
''Drosophila'' () is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit. They should not be confused with the Tephritidae, a related family, which are also called fruit flies (sometimes referred to as "true fruit flies"); tephritids feed primarily on unripe or ripe fruit, with many species being regarded as destructive agricultural pests, especially the Mediterranean fruit fly. One species of ''Drosophila'' in particular, '' D. melanogaster'', has been heavily used in research in genetics and is a common model organism in developmental biology. The terms "fruit fly" and "''Drosophila''" are often used synonymously with ''D. melanogaster'' in modern biological literature. The entire genus, however, contains more than 1,500 species and is very diverse in appearan ...
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Escherichia Coli
''Escherichia coli'' (),Wells, J. C. (2000) Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Harlow ngland Pearson Education Ltd. also known as ''E. coli'' (), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus '' Escherichia'' that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most ''E. coli'' strains are harmless, but some serotypes ( EPEC, ETEC etc.) can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for food contamination incidents that prompt product recalls. Most strains do not cause disease in humans and are part of the normal microbiota of the gut; such strains are harmless or even beneficial to humans (although these strains tend to be less studied than the pathogenic ones). For example, some strains of ''E. coli'' benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2 or by preventing the colonization of the intestine by pathogenic bacteria. These mutually beneficial relationships between ''E ...
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Mus Musculus
Mus or MUS may refer to: Abbreviations * MUS, the NATO country code for Mauritius * MUS, the IATA airport code for Minami Torishima Airport * MUS, abbreviation for the Centre for Modern Urban Studies on Campus The Hague, Leiden University, Netherlands * MUS, abbreviation for Medically unexplained physical symptoms * MUS, abbreviation for the Memphis University School * MUS, abbreviation for the Movimiento Unión Soberanista * MUS, abbreviation for Multiple-use water supply system, a low-cost, equitable water supply systems * Mus, abbreviation for Musca, a southern constellation * mus, ISO-639 code for the Muscogee language * Mus., abbreviation used in music degrees such as B.Mus. and M.Mus. * MUs, or million units of energy, used in India for a gigawatt hour People * Anders Mus (fl. 1501–1535), Danish civil servant in Norway * Conny Mus (1950–2010), Dutch journalist, best known as a correspondent for ''RTL Nieuws'' in Israel and the Middle East * Gus Mus (born 1944) ...
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Physarum
''Physarum'' is a genus of mycetozoan slime molds in the family Physaraceae. It contains the following species: *''Physarum albescens'' *'' Physarum album'' *'' Physarum andinum'' *'' Physarum bivalve'' *'' Physarum bogoriense'' *'' Physarum cinereum'' *'' Physarum citrinum'' *'' Physarum compressum'' *'' Physarum confertum'' *'' Physarum conglomeratum'' *'' Physarum crateriforme'' *'' Physarum daamsii'' *'' Physarum didermoides'' *'' Physarum digitatum'' *'' Physarum flavicomum'' *'' Physarum florigerum'' *'' Physarum globuliferum'' *'' Physarum gyrosum'' *'' Physarum hongkongense'' *'' Physarum lakhanpalii'' *'' Physarum lateritium'' *'' Physarum leucophaeum'' *'' Physarum loratum'' *'' Physarum luteolum'' *'' Physarum melleum'' *'' Physarum mortonii'' *'' Physarum mutabile'' *'' Physarum nigripodum'' *'' Physarum nucleatum'' *'' Physarum nutans'' *'' Physarum oblatum'' *'' Physarum plicatum'' *''Physarum polycephalum ''Physarum polycephalum'', an acellular slime mold or ...
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Arabidopsis Thaliana
''Arabidopsis thaliana'', the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa. ''A. thaliana'' is considered a weed; it is found along the shoulders of roads and in disturbed land. A winter annual with a relatively short lifecycle, ''A. thaliana'' is a popular model organism in plant biology and genetics. For a complex multicellular eukaryote, ''A. thaliana'' has a relatively small genome around 135 megabase pairs. It was the first plant to have its genome sequenced, and is a popular tool for understanding the molecular biology of many plant traits, including flower development and light sensing. Description ''Arabidopsis thaliana'' is an annual (rarely biennial) plant, usually growing to 20–25 cm tall. The leaves form a rosette at the base of the plant, with a few leaves also on the flowering stem. The basal leaves are green to slightly purplish in color, 1.5–5 cm long, and 2–10 mm broad, with ...
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Prokaryotes
A prokaryote () is a single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. The word ''prokaryote'' comes from the Greek πρό (, 'before') and κάρυον (, 'nut' or 'kernel').Campbell, N. "Biology:Concepts & Connections". Pearson Education. San Francisco: 2003. In the two-empire system arising from the work of Édouard Chatton, prokaryotes were classified within the empire Prokaryota. But in the three-domain system, based upon molecular analysis, prokaryotes are divided into two domains: ''Bacteria'' (formerly Eubacteria) and ''Archaea'' (formerly Archaebacteria). Organisms with nuclei are placed in a third domain, Eukaryota. In the study of the origins of life, prokaryotes are thought to have arisen before eukaryotes. Besides the absence of a nucleus, prokaryotes also lack mitochondria, or most of the other membrane-bound organelles that characterize the eukaryotic cell. It was once thought that prokaryotic cellular components within the cy ...
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