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Cost Object
A cost object is a term used primarily in cost accounting to describe something to which costs are assigned. Common examples of cost objects are: product lines, geographic territories, customers, departments or anything else for which management would like to quantify cost. Cost object is anything for which a separate measurement of cost is required. Cost object may be a product, a service, a project, etc. The use of cost objects is common within activity based costing and Grenzplankostenrechnung systems. See also Cost centre (business) A cost centre is a department within a business to which costs can be allocated. The term includes departments which do not produce directly but incur costs to the business, when the manager and employees of the cost centre are not accountable for ... References Costs Management accounting {{accounting-stub ...
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Cost Accounting
Cost accounting is defined as "a systematic set of procedures for recording and reporting measurements of the cost of manufacturing goods and performing services in the aggregate and in detail. It includes methods for recognizing, classifying, allocating, aggregating and reporting such costs and comparing them with standard costs." (IMA) Often considered a subset of managerial accounting, its end goal is to advise the management on how to optimize business practices and processes based on cost efficiency and capability. Cost accounting provides the detailed cost information that management needs to control current operations and plan for the future. Cost accounting information is also commonly used in financial accounting, but its primary function is for use by managers to facilitate their decision-making. Origins of Cost Accounting All types of businesses, whether manufacturing, trading or producing services, require cost accounting to track their activities. Cost accounting ...
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Accounting Cost
In accounting, an economic item's historical cost is the original nominal monetary value of that item. Historical cost accounting involves reporting assets and liabilities at their historical costs, which are not updated for changes in the items' values. Consequently, the amounts reported for these balance sheet items often differ from their current economic or market values. While use of historical cost measurement is criticised for its lack of timely reporting of value changes, it remains in use in most accounting systems during periods of low and high inflation and deflation. During hyperinflation, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) require financial capital maintenance in units of constant purchasing power in terms of the monthly CPI as set out in IAS 29, Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies. Various adjustments to historical cost are used, many of which require the use of management judgment and may be difficult to verify. The trend in most acc ...
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Activity Based Costing
Activity-based costing (ABC) is a costing method that identifies activities in an organization and assigns the cost of each activity to all products and services according to the actual consumption by each. Therefore, this model assigns more indirect costs ( overhead) into direct costs compared to conventional costing. CIMA, the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants, defines ABC as an approach to the costing and monitoring of activities which involves tracing resource consumption and costing final outputs. Resources are assigned to activities, and activities to cost objects based on consumption estimates. The latter utilize cost drivers to attach activity costs to outputs. The Institute of Cost & Management Accountants of Bangladesh (ICMAB) defines activity-based costing as an accounting method which identifies the activities which a firm performs and then assigns indirect costs to cost objects. Objectives With ABC, a company can soundly estimate the cost elements o ...
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Grenzplankostenrechnung
Grenzplankostenrechnung (GPK) is a German costing methodology, developed in the late 1940s and 1950s, designed to provide a consistent and accurate application of how managerial costs are calculated and assigned to a product or service. The term Grenzplankostenrechnung, often referred to as GPK, has been translated as either ''Marginal Planned Cost Accounting'' or ''Flexible Analytic Cost Planning and Accounting''. The GPK methodology has become the standard for cost accounting in Germany as a "result of the modern, strong controlling culture in German corporations". German firms that use GPK methodology include Deutsche Telekom, Daimler AG The Mercedes-Benz Group AG (previously named Daimler-Benz, DaimlerChrysler and Daimler) is a German multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-W├╝rttemberg, Germany. It is one of the world's leading car manufactu ..., Porsche AG, Deutsche Bank, and Deutsche Post (German Post Office). These companies have int ...
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Cost Centre (business)
A cost centre is a department within a business to which costs can be allocated. The term includes departments which do not produce directly but incur costs to the business, when the manager and employees of the cost centre are not accountable for the profitability and investment decisions of the business but they are responsible for some of its costs. Types There are two main types of cost centres: * Production cost centres, where the products are manufactured or processed. Example of this is an assembly area. * Service cost centres, where services are provided to other cost centres. Example of this is the personnel department or the canteen. Examples * Marketing department * Human resources * Research and development * Work office * Quality assurance * Engineering * Logistics * Procurement Cost centres can be trimmed down to the smallest segregated tasks within Departments. It is not necessary to consider departments as outright cost centres. Some companies adopt a different ap ...
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Costs
In production, research, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something or deliver a service, and hence is not available for use anymore. In business, the cost may be one of acquisition, in which case the amount of money expended to acquire it is counted as cost. In this case, money is the input that is gone in order to acquire the thing. This acquisition cost may be the sum of the cost of production as incurred by the original producer, and further costs of transaction as incurred by the acquirer over and above the price paid to the producer. Usually, the price also includes a mark-up for profit over the cost of production. More generalized in the field of economics, cost is a metric that is totaling up as a result of a process or as a differential for the result of a decision. Hence cost is the metric used in the standard modeling paradigm applied to economic processes. Costs (pl.) are often further described based on their ...
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