Conservation Law (physics)
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time. Exact conservation laws include conservation of energy, conservation of linear momentum, conservation of angular momentum, and conservation of electric charge. There are also many approximate conservation laws, which apply to such quantities as mass, parity, lepton number, baryon number, strangeness, hypercharge, etc. These quantities are conserved in certain classes of physics processes, but not in all. A local conservation law is usually expressed mathematically as a continuity equation, a partial differential equation which gives a relation between the amount of the quantity and the "transport" of that quantity. It states that the amount of the conserved quantity at a point or within a volume can only change by the amount of the quantity which flows in or out of the volume. From Noether's theorem, each conservation l ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Physics
Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, with its main goal being to understand how the universe behaves. "Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flatscreen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Symmetry (physics)
In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation. A family of particular transformations may be ''continuous'' (such as rotation of a circle) or '' discrete'' (e.g., reflection of a bilaterally symmetric figure, or rotation of a regular polygon). Continuous and discrete transformations give rise to corresponding types of symmetries. Continuous symmetries can be described by Lie groups while discrete symmetries are described by finite groups (see ''Symmetry group''). These two concepts, Lie and finite groups, are the foundation for the fundamental theories of modern physics. Symmetries are frequently amenable to mathematical formulations such as group representations and can, in addition, be exploited to simplify many problems. Arguably the most important example of a symmetry in physics is that the speed of light has the same value in all fra ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Color Charge
Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The "color charge" of quarks and gluons is completely unrelated to the everyday meanings of color and charge (physics), charge. The term ''color'' and the labels red, green, and blue became popular simply because of the loose analogy to the primary colors. Some particles have corresponding antiparticles. A particle with red, green, or blue charge has a corresponding antiparticle in which the color charge must be the anticolor of red, green, and blue, respectively, for the color charge to be conserved in particle–antiparticle Particle creation, creation and annihilation. Particle physicists call these antired, antigreen, and antiblue. All three colors mixed together, or any one of these colors and its Complementary colors, complement (or negative), is "colorless" or "white" and has a net color charge of zero. Due to a property of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gauge Invariance
In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian (and hence the dynamics of the system itself) does not change (is invariant) under local transformations according to certain smooth families of operations (Lie groups). The term ''gauge'' refers to any specific mathematical formalism to regulate redundant degrees of freedom in the Lagrangian of a physical system. The transformations between possible gauges, called ''gauge transformations'', form a Lie group—referred to as the ''symmetry group'' or the ''gauge group'' of the theory. Associated with any Lie group is the Lie algebra of group generators. For each group generator there necessarily arises a corresponding field (usually a vector field) called the ''gauge field''. Gauge fields are included in the Lagrangian to ensure its invariance under the local group transformations (called ''gauge invariance''). When such a theory is quantized, the quanta of the gauge fields are called ''gauge boson ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

U(1)
In mathematics, the circle group, denoted by \mathbb T or \mathbb S^1, is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers with absolute value 1, that is, the unit circle in the complex plane or simply the unit complex numbers. \mathbb T = \. The circle group forms a subgroup of \mathbb C^\times, the multiplicative group of all nonzero complex numbers. Since \mathbb C^\times is abelian, it follows that \mathbb T is as well. A unit complex number in the circle group represents a rotation of the complex plane about the origin and can be parametrized by the angle measure \theta: \theta \mapsto z = e^ = \cos\theta + i\sin\theta. This is the exponential map for the circle group. The circle group plays a central role in Pontryagin duality and in the theory of Lie groups. The notation \mathbb T for the circle group stems from the fact that, with the standard topology (see below), the circle group is a 1torus. More generally, \mathbb T^n (the direct product of \mathbb T with it ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Charge Conservation
In physics, charge conservation is the principle that the total electric charge in an isolated system never changes. The net quantity of electric charge, the amount of positive charge minus the amount of negative charge in the universe, is always '' conserved''. Charge conservation, considered as a physical conservation law, implies that the change in the amount of electric charge in any volume of space is exactly equal to the amount of charge flowing into the volume minus the amount of charge flowing out of the volume. In essence, charge conservation is an accounting relationship between the amount of charge in a region and the flow of charge into and out of that region, given by a continuity equation between charge density \rho(\mathbf) and current density \mathbf(\mathbf). This does not mean that individual positive and negative charges cannot be created or destroyed. Electric charge is carried by subatomic particles such as electrons and protons. Charged particles ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lorentz Covariance
In relativistic physics, Lorentz symmetry or Lorentz invariance, named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz, is an equivalence of observation or observational symmetry due to special relativity implying that the laws of physics stay the same for all observers that are moving with respect to one another within an inertial frame. It has also been described as "the feature of nature that says experimental results are independent of the orientation or the boost velocity of the laboratory through space". Lorentz covariance, a related concept, is a property of the underlying spacetime manifold. Lorentz covariance has two distinct, but closely related meanings: # A physical quantity is said to be Lorentz covariant if it transforms under a given representation of the Lorentz group. According to the representation theory of the Lorentz group, these quantities are built out of scalars, fourvectors, fourtensors, and spinors. In particular, a Lorentz covariant scalar (e.g., the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rotational Symmetry
Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in geometry, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn. An object's degree of rotational symmetry is the number of distinct orientations in which it looks exactly the same for each rotation. Certain geometric objects are partially symmetrical when rotated at certain angles such as squares rotated 90°, however the only geometric objects that are fully rotationally symmetric at any angle are spheres, circles and other spheroids. Formal treatment Formally the rotational symmetry is symmetry with respect to some or all rotations in ''m''dimensional Euclidean space. Rotations are direct isometries, i.e., isometries preserving orientation. Therefore, a symmetry group of rotational symmetry is a subgroup of ''E''+(''m'') (see Euclidean group). Symmetry with respect to all rotations about all points implies translational symmetry with respect to all translations, so space is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Conservation Of Angular Momentum
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational analog of linear momentum. It is an important physical quantity because it is a conserved quantity—the total angular momentum of a closed system remains constant. Angular momentum has both a direction and a magnitude, and both are conserved. Bicycles and motorcycles, frisbees, rifled bullets, and gyroscopes owe their useful properties to conservation of angular momentum. Conservation of angular momentum is also why hurricanes form spirals and neutron stars have high rotational rates. In general, conservation limits the possible motion of a system, but it does not uniquely determine it. The threedimensional angular momentum for a point particle is classically represented as a pseudovector , the cross product of the particle's position vector (relative to some origin) and its momentum vector; the latter is in Newtonian mechanics. Unlike linear momentum, angular mom ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Translation Symmetry
Translation is the communication of the Meaning (linguistic), meaning of a #Source and target languages, sourcelanguage text by means of an Dynamic and formal equivalence, equivalent #Source and target languages, targetlanguage text. The English language draws a terminology, terminological distinction (which does not exist in every language) between ''translating'' (a written text) and ''Language interpretation, interpreting'' (oral or Sign language, signed communication between users of different languages); under this distinction, translation can begin only after the appearance of writing within a language community. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing sourcelanguage words, grammar, or syntax into the targetlanguage rendering. On the other hand, such "spillovers" have sometimes imported useful sourcelanguage calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the very l ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Conservation Of Linear Momentum
In Newtonian mechanics, momentum (more specifically linear momentum or translational momentum) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. It is a vector quantity, possessing a magnitude and a direction. If is an object's mass and is its velocity (also a vector quantity), then the object's momentum is : \mathbf = m \mathbf. In the International System of Units (SI), the unit of measurement of momentum is the kilogram metre per second (kg⋅m/s), which is equivalent to the newtonsecond. Newton's second law of motion states that the rate of change of a body's momentum is equal to the net force acting on it. Momentum depends on the frame of reference, but in any inertial frame it is a ''conserved'' quantity, meaning that if a closed system is not affected by external forces, its total linear momentum does not change. Momentum is also conserved in special relativity (with a modified formula) and, in a modified form, in electrodynamics, quantum mechanic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Poincaré Invariance
Poincaré is a French surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Henri Poincaré (1854–1912), French physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science * Henriette Poincaré (18581943), wife of Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré * Lucien Poincaré (1862–1920), physicist, brother of Raymond and cousin of Henri * Raymond Poincaré (1860–1934), French Prime Minister or President ''inter alia'' from 1913 to 1920, cousin of Henri See also *List of things named after Henri Poincaré In physics and mathematics, a number of ideas are named after Henri Poincaré: * Euler–Poincaré characteristic * Hilbert–Poincaré series * Poincaré–Bendixson theorem * Poincaré–Birkhoff theorem * Poincaré–Birkhoff–Witt theorem, u .... * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Poincare Frenchlanguage surnames ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 