*

picture info

Compressibility Factor
In thermodynamics, the compressibility factor (Z), also known as the compression factor or the gas deviation factor, describes the deviation of a real gas from ideal gas behaviour. It is simply defined as the ratio of the molar volume of a gas to the molar volume of an ideal gas at the same temperature and pressure. It is a useful thermodynamic property for modifying the ideal gas law to account for the real gas behaviour.Properties of Natural Gases
. Includes a chart of compressibility factors versus reduced pressure and reduced temperature (on last page of the PDF document)
In general, deviation from ideal behaviour becomes more significant the closer a gas is to a

List Of Thermodynamic Properties
In thermodynamics, a physical property is any property that is measurable, and whose value describes a state of a physical system. Thermodynamic properties are defined as characteristic features of a system, capable of specifying the system's state. Some constants, such as the ideal gas constant, , do not describe the state of a system, and so are not properties. On the other hand, some constants, such as (the freezing point depression constant, or cryoscopic constant), depend on the identity of a substance, and so may be considered to describe the state of a system, and therefore may be considered physical properties. "Specific" properties are expressed on a per mass basis. If the units were changed from per mass to, for example, per mole, the property would remain as it was (i.e., intensive or extensive). Regarding work and heat Work and heat are not thermodynamic properties, but rather '' process quantities:'' flows of energy across a system boundary. Systems do not ''con ...
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]

Compressibility Factor For Wikipedia
In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, the compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility or, if the temperature is held constant, the isothermal compressibility) is a measure of the instantaneous relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change. In its simple form, the compressibility \kappa (denoted in some fields) may be expressed as :\beta =-\frac\frac, where is volume and is pressure. The choice to define compressibility as the negative of the fraction makes compressibility positive in the (usual) case that an increase in pressure induces a reduction in volume. The reciprocal of compressibility at fixed temperature is called the isothermal bulk modulus. Definition The specification above is incomplete, because for any object or system the magnitude of the compressibility depends strongly on whether the process is isentropic or isothermal. Accordingly, isothermal compressibility is defined: :\beta_T=-\fr ...
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]

Reduced Pressure
In thermodynamics, the reduced properties of a fluid are a set of state variables scaled by the fluid's state properties at its critical point. These dimensionless thermodynamic coordinates, taken together with a substance's compressibility factor, provide the basis for the simplest form of the theorem of corresponding states. Reduced properties are also used to define the Peng–Robinson equation of state, a model designed to provide reasonable accuracy near the critical point. They are also used to critical exponents, which describe the behaviour of physical quantities near continuous phase transitions.Hagen Kleinert and Verena Schulte-Frohlinde, ''Critical Properties of φ4-Theories'', pp.8World Scientific (Singapore, 2001) ''(Read online a'' Reduced pressure The reduced pressure is defined as its actual pressure p divided by its critical pressure p_: :p_ = Reduced temperature The reduced temperature of a fluid is its actual temperature, divided by its critical tempera ...
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]

Reduced Temperature
In thermodynamics, the reduced properties of a fluid are a set of state variables scaled by the fluid's state properties at its critical point. These dimensionless thermodynamic coordinates, taken together with a substance's compressibility factor, provide the basis for the simplest form of the theorem of corresponding states. Reduced properties are also used to define the Peng–Robinson equation of state, a model designed to provide reasonable accuracy near the critical point. They are also used to critical exponents, which describe the behaviour of physical quantities near continuous phase transitions.Hagen Kleinert and Verena Schulte-Frohlinde, ''Critical Properties of φ4-Theories'', pp.8World Scientific (Singapore, 2001) ''(Read online a'' Reduced pressure The reduced pressure is defined as its actual pressure p divided by its critical pressure p_: :p_ = Reduced temperature The reduced temperature of a fluid is its actual temperature, divided by its critical temperat ...
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]

Diagramma Generalizzato Fattore Di Compressibilità
''Diagramma'' is a genus of marine ray-finned fishes belonging to the family Haemulidae, grunts native to the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean. The currently recognized species in this genus are: * '' Diagramma centurio'' G. Cuvier, 1830 (sailfin rubberlip) * '' Diagramma labiosum'' W. J. Macleay, 1883 * '' Diagramma melanacrum'' J. W. Johnson & J. E. Randall, 2001 (blackfin slatey) * '' Diagramma pictum'' ( Thunberg, 1792) (painted sweetlips) * '' Diagramma punctatum'' G. Cuvier, 1830 Systematics ''Diagramma'' was originally used as a tautological name for ''Anthias diagramma'' in 1792 by Marcus Elieser Bloch in error for Linnaeus’s ''Perca diagramma'', Lorenz Oken used Bloch’s taxon as the type species of the new genus ''Diagramma'' in 1917. This is a synonym for Carl Peter Thunberg’s ''Perca picta'' of 1792. Linnaeus did not explain why he used ''diagramma'' but it may mean “marked with lines”. Some authorities treat ''Diagramma'' as a synonym of ''P ...
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]

Fugacity
In chemical thermodynamics, the fugacity of a real gas is an effective partial pressure which replaces the mechanical partial pressure in an accurate computation of the chemical equilibrium constant. It is equal to the pressure of an ideal gas which has the same temperature and molar Gibbs free energy as the real gas. Fugacities are determined experimentally or estimated from various models such as a Van der Waals gas that are closer to reality than an ideal gas. The real gas pressure and fugacity are related through the dimensionless fugacity coefficient . \varphi = \frac For an ideal gas, fugacity and pressure are equal and so . Taken at the same temperature and pressure, the difference between the molar Gibbs free energies of a real gas and the corresponding ideal gas is equal to . The fugacity is closely related to the thermodynamic activity. For a gas, the activity is simply the fugacity divided by a reference pressure to give a dimensionless quantity. This reference pres ...
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]

picture info

Critical Point (thermodynamics)
In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve. The most prominent example is the liquid–vapor critical point, the end point of the pressure–temperature curve that designates conditions under which a liquid and its vapor can coexist. At higher temperatures, the gas cannot be liquefied by pressure alone. At the critical point, defined by a ''critical temperature'' ''T''c and a ''critical pressure'' ''p''c, phase boundaries vanish. Other examples include the liquid–liquid critical points in mixtures, and the ferromagnet–paramagnet transition ( Curie temperature) in the absence of an external magnetic field. Liquid–vapor critical point Overview For simplicity and clarity, the generic notion of ''critical point'' is best introduced by discussing a specific example, the vapor–liquid critical point. This was the first critical point to be discovered, and it is still the best known and most studied one. The fi ...
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]

picture info

Mole (unit)
The mole, symbol mol, is the unit of amount of substance in the International System of Units (SI). The quantity amount of substance is a measure of how many elementary entities of a given substance are in an object or sample. The mole is defined as containing exactly elementary entities. Depending on what the substance is, an elementary entity may be an atom, a molecule, an ion, an ion pair, or a subatomic particle such as an electron. For example, 10 moles of water (a chemical compound) and 10 moles of mercury (a chemical element), contain equal amounts of substance and the mercury contains exactly one atom for each molecule of the water, despite the two having different volumes and different masses. The number of elementary entities in one mole is known as the Avogadro number, which is the approximate number of nucleons (protons or neutrons) in one gram of ordinary matter. The previous definition of a mole was simply the number of elementary entities equal to that of 12 ...
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]

Statistical Mechanics
In physics, statistical mechanics is a mathematical framework that applies statistical methods and probability theory to large assemblies of microscopic entities. It does not assume or postulate any natural laws, but explains the macroscopic behavior of nature from the behavior of such ensembles. Statistical mechanics arose out of the development of classical thermodynamics, a field for which it was successful in explaining macroscopic physical properties—such as temperature, pressure, and heat capacity—in terms of microscopic parameters that fluctuate about average values and are characterized by probability distributions. This established the fields of statistical thermodynamics and statistical physics. The founding of the field of statistical mechanics is generally credited to three physicists: * Ludwig Boltzmann, who developed the fundamental interpretation of entropy in terms of a collection of microstates *James Clerk Maxwell, who developed models of probability di ...
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]

Rankine Scale
The Rankine scale () is an absolute scale of thermodynamic temperature named after the University of Glasgow engineer and physicist Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859. History Similar to the Kelvin scale, which was first proposed in 1848, zero on the Rankine scale is absolute zero, but a temperature difference of one Rankine degree (°R or °Ra) is defined as equal to one Fahrenheit degree, rather than the Celsius degree used on the Kelvin scale. In converting from kelvin to degrees Rankine, 1 °R =  K or 1 K = 1.8 °R. A temperature of 0 K (−273.15 °C; −459.67 °F) is equal to 0 °R.B.8 Factors for Units Listed Alphabetically
from

# Usage

The Rankine scale is still used in engineering systems where h ...
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]

picture info

Kelvin
The kelvin, symbol K, is the primary unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), used alongside its prefixed forms and the degree Celsius. It is named after the Belfast-born and University of Glasgow-based engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907). The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale, meaning it uses absolute zero as its null (zero) point. Historically, the Kelvin scale was developed by shifting the starting point of the much-older Celsius scale down from the melting point of water to absolute zero, and its increments still closely approximate the historic definition of a degree Celsius, but since 2019 the scale has been defined by fixing the Boltzmann constant to be exactly . Hence, one kelvin is equal to a change in the thermodynamic temperature that results in a change of thermal energy by . The temperature in degree Celsius is now defined as the temperature in kelvins minus 273.15, meaning ...