Comparison Of Topologies
In topology and related areas of mathematics, the set of all possible topologies on a given set forms a partially ordered set. This order relation can be used for comparison of the topologies. Definition A topology on a set may be defined as the collection of subsets which are considered to be "open". An alternative definition is that it is the collection of subsets which are considered "closed". These two ways of defining the topology are essentially equivalent because the complement of an open set is closed and vice versa. In the following, it doesn't matter which definition is used. Let ''τ''1 and ''τ''2 be two topologies on a set ''X'' such that ''τ''1 is contained in ''τ''2: :\tau_1 \subseteq \tau_2. That is, every element of ''τ''1 is also an element of ''τ''2. Then the topology ''τ''1 is said to be a coarser (weaker or smaller) topology than ''τ''2, and ''τ''2 is said to be a finer (stronger or larger) topology than ''τ''1. There are some authors, especially ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set endowed with a structure, called a '' topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic examples of topological properties are: the dimension, which allows distinguishing between a line and a surface; compactness, which allows distinguishing between a line and a circle; co ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Strong Topology (polar Topology)
Strong may refer to: Education * The Strong, an educational institution in Rochester, New York, United States * Strong Hall (Lawrence, Kansas), an administrative hall of the University of Kansas * Strong School, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, an overflow school for district kindergartners and first graders Music Albums * ''Strong'' (Anette Olzon album), 2021 * ''Strong'' (Arrested Development album), 2010 * ''Strong'' (Michelle Wright album), 2013 * ''Strong'' (Thomas Anders album), 2010 * ''Strong'' (Tracy Lawrence album), 2004 * ''Strong'', a 2000 album by Clare Quilty Songs * "Strong" (London Grammar song), 2013 * "Strong" (One Direction song), 2013 * "Strong" (Robbie Williams song), 1998 * "Strong", a song by After Forever from ''Remagine'' * "Strong", a song by Audio Adrenaline from '' Worldwide'' * "Strong", a song by LeAnn Rimes from ''Whatever We Wanna'' * "Strong", a song by London Grammar from ''If You Wait'' * "Strong", a song by Will Hoge from '' Nev ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bounded Lattice
A lattice is an abstract structure studied in the mathematical subdisciplines of order theory and abstract algebra. It consists of a partially ordered set in which every pair of elements has a unique supremum (also called a least upper bound or join) and a unique infimum (also called a greatest lower bound or meet). An example is given by the power set of a set, partially ordered by inclusion, for which the supremum is the union and the infimum is the intersection. Another example is given by the natural numbers, partially ordered by divisibility, for which the supremum is the least common multiple and the infimum is the greatest common divisor. Lattices can also be characterized as algebraic structures satisfying certain axiomatic identities. Since the two definitions are equivalent, lattice theory draws on both order theory and universal algebra. Semilattices include lattices, which in turn include Heyting and Boolean algebras. These ''latticelike'' structures all ad ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subbase
In topology, a subbase (or subbasis, prebase, prebasis) for a topological space X with topology T is a subcollection B of T that generates T, in the sense that T is the smallest topology containing B. A slightly different definition is used by some authors, and there are other useful equivalent formulations of the definition; these are discussed below. Definition Let X be a topological space with topology T. A subbase of T is usually defined as a subcollection B of T satisfying one of the two following equivalent conditions: #The subcollection B ''generates'' the topology T. This means that T is the smallest topology containing B: any topology T^\prime on X containing B must also contain T. #The collection of open sets consisting of all finite intersections of elements of B, together with the set X, forms a basis for T. This means that every proper open set in T can be written as a union of finite intersections of elements of B. Explicitly, given a point x in an open set U \su ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Union (set Theory)
In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all elements in the collection. It is one of the fundamental operations through which sets can be combined and related to each other. A refers to a union of zero (0) sets and it is by definition equal to the empty set. For explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols. Union of two sets The union of two sets ''A'' and ''B'' is the set of elements which are in ''A'', in ''B'', or in both ''A'' and ''B''. In setbuilder notation, :A \cup B = \. For example, if ''A'' = and ''B'' = then ''A'' ∪ ''B'' = . A more elaborate example (involving two infinite sets) is: : ''A'' = : ''B'' = : A \cup B = \ As another example, the number 9 is ''not'' contained in the union of the set of prime numbers and the set of even numbers , because 9 is neither prime nor even. Sets cannot have duplicate elements, so the union of the sets and is . Multiple ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Intersection (set Theory)
In set theory, the intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A \cap B, is the set containing all elements of A that also belong to B or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A. Notation and terminology Intersection is written using the symbol "\cap" between the terms; that is, in infix notation. For example: \\cap\=\ \\cap\=\varnothing \Z\cap\N=\N \\cap\N=\ The intersection of more than two sets (generalized intersection) can be written as: \bigcap_^n A_i which is similar to capitalsigma notation. For an explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols. Definition The intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A \cap B, is the set of all objects that are members of both the sets A and B. In symbols: A \cap B = \. That is, x is an element of the intersection A \cap B if and only if x is both an element of A and an element of B. For example: * The intersection of the sets and is . * The number 9 is in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Supremum
In mathematics, the infimum (abbreviated inf; plural infima) of a subset S of a partially ordered set P is a greatest element in P that is less than or equal to each element of S, if such an element exists. Consequently, the term ''greatest lower bound'' (abbreviated as ) is also commonly used. The supremum (abbreviated sup; plural suprema) of a subset S of a partially ordered set P is the least element in P that is greater than or equal to each element of S, if such an element exists. Consequently, the supremum is also referred to as the ''least upper bound'' (or ). The infimum is in a precise sense dual to the concept of a supremum. Infima and suprema of real numbers are common special cases that are important in analysis, and especially in Lebesgue integration. However, the general definitions remain valid in the more abstract setting of order theory where arbitrary partially ordered sets are considered. The concepts of infimum and supremum are close to minimum ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Infimum
In mathematics, the infimum (abbreviated inf; plural infima) of a subset S of a partially ordered set P is a greatest element in P that is less than or equal to each element of S, if such an element exists. Consequently, the term ''greatest lower bound'' (abbreviated as ) is also commonly used. The supremum (abbreviated sup; plural suprema) of a subset S of a partially ordered set P is the least element in P that is greater than or equal to each element of S, if such an element exists. Consequently, the supremum is also referred to as the ''least upper bound'' (or ). The infimum is in a precise sense dual to the concept of a supremum. Infima and suprema of real numbers are common special cases that are important in analysis, and especially in Lebesgue integration. However, the general definitions remain valid in the more abstract setting of order theory where arbitrary partially ordered sets are considered. The concepts of infimum and supremum are close to minimum and max ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complete Lattice
In mathematics, a complete lattice is a partially ordered set in which ''all'' subsets have both a supremum (join) and an infimum (meet). A lattice which satisfies at least one of these properties is known as a ''conditionally complete lattice.'' Specifically, every nonempty finite lattice is complete. Complete lattices appear in many applications in mathematics and computer science. Being a special instance of lattices, they are studied both in order theory and universal algebra. Complete lattices must not be confused with complete partial orders (''cpo''s), which constitute a strictly more general class of partially ordered sets. More specific complete lattices are complete Boolean algebras and complete Heyting algebras (''locales''). Formal definition A partially ordered set (''L'', ≤) is a ''complete lattice'' if every subset ''A'' of ''L'' has both a greatest lower bound (the infimum, also called the ''meet'') and a least upper bound (the supremum, also called the ' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Neighborhood Base
In topology and related areas of mathematics, the neighbourhood system, complete system of neighbourhoods, or neighbourhood filter \mathcal(x) for a point x in a topological space is the collection of all neighbourhoods of x. Definitions Neighbourhood of a point or set An of a point (or subset) x in a topological space X is any open subset U of X that contains x. A is any subset N \subseteq X that contains open neighbourhood of x; explicitly, N is a neighbourhood of x in X if and only if there exists some open subset U with x \in U \subseteq N. Equivalently, a neighborhood of x is any set that contains x in its topological interior. Importantly, a "neighbourhood" does have to be an open set; those neighbourhoods that also happen to be open sets are known as "open neighbourhoods." Similarly, a neighbourhood that is also a closed (respectively, compact, connected, etc.) set is called a (respectively, , , etc.). There are many other types of neighbourhoods that are used in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Open Map
In mathematics, more specifically in topology, an open map is a function between two topological spaces that maps open sets to open sets. That is, a function f : X \to Y is open if for any open set U in X, the image f(U) is open in Y. Likewise, a closed map is a function that maps closed sets to closed sets. A map may be open, closed, both, or neither; in particular, an open map need not be closed and vice versa. Open and closed maps are not necessarily continuous. Further, continuity is independent of openness and closedness in the general case and a continuous function may have one, both, or neither property; this fact remains true even if one restricts oneself to metric spaces. Although their definitions seem more natural, open and closed maps are much less important than continuous maps. Recall that, by definition, a function f : X \to Y is continuous if the preimage of every open set of Y is open in X. (Equivalently, if the preimage of every closed set of Y is closed in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuous Map (topology)
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are the m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 