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Cingulum (tooth)
In dentistry, cingulum (Latin: girdle or belt) refers to an anatomical feature of the teeth. It refers to the portion of the teeth that forms a convex protuberance at the cervical third of the anatomic crown. It represents the lingual or palatal developmental lobe of these teeth.Ash, Major M. and Stanley J. Nelson. ''Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion.'' 8th edition. 2003. . In zoology and palaeontology Paleontology (), also spelled palaeontology or palæontology, is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossi ..., cingulum refers to this feature only in the upper teeth. When this occurs in the lower teeth it is called the cingulid. References Teeth {{dentistry-stub ...
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Dentistry
Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is the branch of medicine focused on the teeth, gums, and mouth. It consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, management, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the mouth, most commonly focused on dentition (the development and arrangement of teeth) as well as the oral mucosa. Dentistry may also encompass other aspects of the craniofacial complex including the temporomandibular joint. The practitioner is called a dentist. The history of dentistry is almost as ancient as the history of humanity and civilization with the earliest evidence dating from 7000 BC to 5500 BC. Dentistry is thought to have been the first specialization in medicine which have gone on to develop its own accredited degree with its own specializations. Dentistry is often also understood to subsume the now largely defunct medical specialty of stomatology (the study of the mouth and its disorders and diseases) for which reas ...
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Latin
Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through the power of the Roman Republic it became the dominant language in the Italian region and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Even after the fall of Western Rome, Latin remained the common language of international communication, science, scholarship and academia in Europe until well into the 18th century, when other regional vernaculars (including its own descendants, the Romance languages) supplanted it in common academic and political usage, and it eventually became a dead language in the modern linguistic definition. Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter), six or seven noun cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, and vocative), five declensions, four verb conjug ...
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Girdle
A belt, especially if a cord or rope, is called a girdle if it is worn as part of Christian liturgical vestments, or in certain historical, literary or sports contexts. Girdles are used to close a cassock in Christian denominations, including the Anglican Communion, Catholic Church, Methodist Church and Lutheran Church. The girdle, in the 8th or 9th century, was said to resemble an ancient Levitical Jewish vestment, and in that era, was not visible. In 800 AD, the girdle began to be worn by Christian deacons in the Eastern Church. The girdle, for men, symbolizes preparation and readiness to serve, and for women, represents chastity and protection; it was also worn by laypersons in the Middle Ages, as attested in literature. For example, the hagiographical account of Saint George and the Dragon mentions the evildoer being tamed with the sign of the cross and a girdle handed to Saint George by a virgin. History The men among the Greeks and Romans wore the girdle upon the loins, ...
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Belt (other)
Belt may refer to: Apparel * Belt (clothing), a leather or fabric band worn around the waist * Championship belt, a type of trophy used primarily in combat sports * Colored belts, such as a black belt or red belt, worn by martial arts practitioners to signify rank in the kyū ranking system Geology * A synonym for orogen (e.g. orogenic belt) * Greenstone belt * A large-scale linear or curved array of belt of igneous rocks (e.g. Transscandinavian Igneous Belt) * A large-scale linear or curved array of mineral deposits (e.g. Bolivian tin belt) * Metamorphic belt :* Paired metamorphic belts Mechanical and vehicular * Belt (mechanical), a looped strip of material used to link multiple rotating shafts * Conveyor belt, a device for transporting goods along a fixed track * Belt manlift, a device for moving people between floors in a building or grain elevator. * Seat belt, a safety device in automobiles and on the plane * Timing belt, part of an internal combustion engine * ...
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Teeth
A tooth ( : teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food. Some animals, particularly carnivores and omnivores, also use teeth to help with capturing or wounding prey, tearing food, for defensive purposes, to intimidate other animals often including their own, or to carry prey or their young. The roots of teeth are covered by gums. Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of multiple tissues of varying density and hardness that originate from the embryonic germ layer, the ectoderm. The general structure of teeth is similar across the vertebrates, although there is considerable variation in their form and position. The teeth of mammals have deep roots, and this pattern is also found in some fish, and in crocodilians. In most teleost fish, however, the teeth are attached to the outer surface of the bone, while in lizards they are attached to the inner surface of the jaw by one side. In cartilaginous fi ...
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Zoology
Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems. The term is derived from Ancient Greek , ('animal'), and , ('knowledge', 'study'). Although humans have always been interested in the natural history of the animals they saw around them, and made use of this knowledge to domesticate certain species, the formal study of zoology can be said to have originated with Aristotle. He viewed animals as living organisms, studied their structure and development, and considered their adaptations to their surroundings and the function of their parts. The Greek physician Galen studied human anatomy and was one of the greatest surgeons of the ancient world, but after the fall of the Western Roman Empire ...
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Palaeontology
Paleontology (), also spelled palaeontology or palæontology, is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils to classify organisms and study their interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek (, "old, ancient"), (, (gen. ), "being, creature"), and (, "speech, thought, study"). Paleontology lies on the border between biology and geology, but differs from archaeology in that it excludes the study of anatomically modern humans. It now uses techniques drawn from a wide range of sciences, including biochemistry, mathematics, and engineering. ...
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Cingulid
A cingulid is a term used when describing teeth, it refers to a ridge that runs around the base of the crown of a lower tooth (the equivalent on the upper teeth is the cingulum). The presence or absence of a cingulid is often a diagnostic feature for different species of animal, especially among mammals. Some animals don't have a cingulid. Those that do may have them on only some, or all of the teeth, though most often on the molar teeth. It can be on the upper or lower teeth, or both. There are four common descriptions of the position of the cingulid: * Lingual cingulid - a cingulid on the side of the tooth that is next to the tongue * Labial cingulid - a cingulid on the side of the tooth that is next to the lips or cheeks * Distal cingulid - a cingulid on the side of the tooth facing the tooth behind it in the jaw (can also be referred to as a posterior cingulid) *Mesial This is a list of definitions of commonly used terms of location and direction in dentistry. This set o ...
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