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CMYK Color Model
The CMYK color model (also known as process color, or four color) is a subtractive color model, based on the CMY color model, used in color printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself. The abbreviation ''CMYK'' refers to the four ink plates used: cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black). The CMYK model works by partially or entirely masking colors on a lighter, usually white, background. The ink reduces the light that would otherwise be reflected. Such a model is called ''subtractive'' because inks "subtract" the colors red, green and blue from white light. White light minus red leaves cyan, white light minus green leaves magenta, and white light minus blue leaves yellow. In additive color models, such as RGB, white is the "additive" combination of all primary colored lights, black is the absence of light. In the CMYK model, it is the opposite: white is the natural color of the paper or other background, black results from a full combination of co ...
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Cerulean
Cerulean (), also spelled caerulean, is a shade of blue ranging between azure and a darker sky blue. The first recorded use of ''cerulean'' as a colour name in English was in 1590. The word is derived from the Latin word '' caeruleus'', "dark blue, blue, or blue-green", which in turn probably derives from ''caerulum'', diminutive of ''caelum'', "heaven, sky". "Cerulean blue" is the name of a pigment. The pigment was discovered in the late eighteenth century and designated as cerulean blue in the nineteenth century. Cerulean blue pigment The primary chemical constituent of the pigment is cobalt(II) stannate (). The precise hue of the pigment is dependent on a variable silicate component. The pigment Cerulean blue was discovered in 1789 by the Swiss chemist Albrecht Höpfner. Subsequently, there was a limited German production under the name of ''Cölinblau''. It was in 1860 first marketed in the United Kingdom by colourman George Rowney, as "coeruleum". Other nineteenth ...
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Color Reproduction
Color reproduction is an aspect of color science concerned with producing light spectra that evoke a desired color, either through additive (light emitting) or subtractive (surface color) models. It converts physical correlates of color perception ( CIE 1931 XYZ color space tristimulus values and related quantities) into light spectra that can be experienced by observers. In this way, it is the opposite of colorimetry. It is concerned with the faithful reproduction of a color in one medium, with a color in another, so it is a central concept in color management and relies heavily on color calibration. For example, food packaging must be able to faithfully reproduce the colors of the foods therein in order to appeal to a customer. This involves proper color calibration of at least four devices: * Lighting, which must have a high color rendering index and not give a color cast A colour cast is a tint of a particular colour, usually unwanted, that evenly affects a photographic i ...
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Spot Color
In offset printing, a spot color or solid color is any color generated by an ink (pure or mixed) that is printed using a ''single run'', whereas a process color is produced by printing a series of dots of different colors. The widespread offset-printing process is composed of the four spot colors cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black) commonly referred to as CMYK. More advanced processes involve the use of six spot colors ( hexachromatic process), which add orange and green to the process (termed CMYKOG). The two additional spot colors are added to compensate for the ineffective reproduction of faint tints using CMYK colors only. However, offset technicians around the world use the term ''spot color'' to mean any color generated by a non-standard offset ink; such as metallic, fluorescent, or custom hand-mixed inks. When making a multi-color print with a spot color process, every spot color needs its own lithographic film. All the areas of the same spot color are printed us ...
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Gray Component Replacement
Within the CMY color space used in color printing, a range of colors can be achieved by combining the three primary colors. This combination can be thought of as a hue component (which will require a maximum of two primary colors) and a grey component (a mixture of all three, in an appropriate quantity to give the required saturation). If the grey component is replaced by black ink, the same color is being achieved by using two primaries and black. The substitution of black for the grey component is described as grey component replacement (GCR). In GCR, contrary to under color removal (UCR), the CMY values that add to grey all along the tone scale can be replaced with black ink. UCR only adds black to the CMY equivalent of what would have printed as a grey or near-grey. : Advantage: GCR uses less ink, and some of that ink is black, normally cheaper than the others. : Advantage: The areas where less ink is used are regions of high ink use, so the potential problems of drying and i ...
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Under Color Addition
In four-color printing (or more), under color addition (UCA) is a technique for darkening areas of the printed image by adding colored inks. It is meant to achieve the same results as under color removal, but from a different starting position. Under color removal replaces colored inks in selected areas with black ink to achieve a darker appearance, whereas with under color addition, small portions of the three colors are added to these areas instead of, or in addition to, using black ink. UCA is used to reduce the speckle effects of dithering, especially with very light colors. Without UCA, a very light grey would consist of infrequent black specks that might be individually noticeable. With UCA, the specks are lighter and 3x more numerous. Printer drivers sometimes make the use of UCA somewhat configurable, disabling it when set to a mode intended to save ink. Graphic designers (or anyone else creating artwork for print output) are cautioned to be wary of using UCA. Used wrong ...
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Under Color Removal
In printing, under color removal (UCR) is a process of eliminating overlapping yellow, magenta, and cyan that would have added to a dark neutral (black) and replacing them with black ink only, called a ''Full Black'', during the color separation process. Under color removal is used in four-color (or more colors) printing. Black ink used to add details and darkness in shadowed areas is called a ''Skeletal Black''. With current ink technology, the total CMYK ink in the shadows refuses to stick after it reaches the dark shadows (usually above a 250% total CMYK coverage), and begins to peel off. To prevent this, printers developed UCR, in which neutral shadows – which would have normally been produced by overprinting the four inks ''Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black'' on top of each other (high ink coverage) – are replaced with the single layer of ''Black''. UCR removes the color inks ''under'' the Black, resulting in a single layer of ink which sticks to the sheet bette ...
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Rich Black
Rich may refer to: Common uses * Rich, an entity possessing wealth * Rich, an intense flavor, color, sound, texture, or feeling ** Rich (wine), a descriptor in wine tasting Places United States * Rich, Mississippi, an unincorporated community * Rich County, Utah * Rich Mountain (other) * Rich Township, Cook County, Illinois * Rich Township, Anderson County, Kansas * Rich Township, Lapeer County, Michigan Elsewhere * Er-Rich, Morocco, a town * Rich River, Victoria, Australia People * Rich (given name), often short for Richard * Rich (surname) Arts, entertainment, and media Fictional characters * DS Terry Rich, a character in the British soap opera ''EastEnders'' * Rich, a character in the American sitcom television series '' The Hogan Family'' * Rich Halke, a character in the TV sitcom '' Step by Step'' * Rich Hardbeck, a character in the British television series ''Skins'' * Richie Rich (comics), a fictional character Music * Rich, half of the Ameri ...
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Visible Spectrum
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. Electromagnetic radiation in this range of wavelengths is called '' visible light'' or simply light. A typical human eye will respond to wavelengths from about 380 to about 750 nanometers. In terms of frequency, this corresponds to a band in the vicinity of 400–790  terahertz. These boundaries are not sharply defined and may vary per individual. Under optimal conditions these limits of human perception can extend to 310 nm ( ultraviolet) and 1100 nm ( near infrared). The optical spectrum is sometimes considered to be the same as the visible spectrum, but some authors define the term more broadly, to include the ultraviolet and infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum as well. The spectrum does not contain all the colors that the human visual system can distinguish. '' Unsaturated colors'' such as pink, or purple variations like magenta, for examp ...
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Newsprint
Newsprint is a low-cost, non-archival paper consisting mainly of wood pulp and most commonly used to print newspapers and other publications and advertising material. Invented in 1844 by Charles Fenerty of Nova Scotia, Canada, it usually has an off white cast and distinctive feel. It is designed for use in printing presses that employ a long web of paper ( web offset, letterpress and flexographic), rather than individual sheets of paper. Newsprint is favored by publishers and printers as it is relatively low cost (compared with paper grades used for glossy magazines and sales brochures), strong (to run through modern high-speed web printing presses) and can accept four-color printing at qualities that meet the needs of typical newspapers. Invention Charles Fenerty began experimenting with wood pulp around 1838, making his discovery in 1844. On October 26, 1844, Fenerty took a sample of his paper to Halifax's top newspaper, the ''Acadian Recorder'', where he had written a l ...
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Printing Registration
In color printing, print registration is the layering of printed patterns to form a multicolor pattern. Registration error is the "position misalignment in the overlapped patterns." Machine components such as the print cylinder, doctor blade assembly, printing plates, stress/friction and more, affect the registration of the machine. Inconsistencies among these components can cause the printing press to fall out of registration; that is when press operators will begin to see defects in their print. There are many different ways to achieve proper registration, many of which employ the alignment of registration marks (pictured right). Many press manufacturers have installed automatic register systems to assist the operator in getting the print back into proper alignment. Purpose When printing an image or a package of some sort that has more than one color, it is necessary to print each color separately and ensure each color overlaps the others precisely. If this is not done, the fi ...
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Serif
In typography, a serif () is a small line or stroke regularly attached to the end of a larger stroke in a letter or symbol within a particular font or family of fonts. A typeface or "font family" making use of serifs is called a serif typeface (or serifed typeface), and a typeface that does not include them is sans-serif. Some typography sources refer to sans-serif typefaces as "grotesque" (in German, ) or "Gothic", and serif typefaces as "roman". Origins and etymology Serifs originated from the first official Greek writings on stone and in Latin alphabet with inscriptional lettering—words carved into stone in Roman antiquity. The explanation proposed by Father Edward Catich in his 1968 book ''The Origin of the Serif'' is now broadly but not universally accepted: the Roman letter outlines were first painted onto stone, and the stone carvers followed the brush marks, which flared at stroke ends and corners, creating serifs. Another theory is that serifs were devised to neaten ...
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Gizmodo
''Gizmodo'' ( ) is a design, technology, science and science fiction website. It was originally launched as part of the Gawker Media network run by Nick Denton, and runs on the Kinja platform. ''Gizmodo'' also includes the subsite '' io9'', which focuses on science fiction and futurism. ''Gizmodo'' is now part of G/O Media, owned by private equity firm Great Hill Partners. History The blog, launched in 2002, was originally edited by Peter Rojas, who was later recruited by Weblogs, Inc. to launch their similar technology blog, ''Engadget''. By mid-2004, ''Gizmodo'' and ''Gawker'' together were bringing in revenue of approximately $6,500 per month. Gizmodo then launched in other locations: *In 2005, VNU and Gawker Media formed an alliance to republish ''Gizmodo'' across Europe, with VNU translating the content into French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, and adding local European-interest material. *In 2006, ''Gizmodo Japan'' was launched by Mediagene, wi ...
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