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Boyle's Law
Boyle's law, also referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law (especially in France), is an experimental gas law that describes the relationship between pressure and volume of a confined gas. Boyle's law has been stated as: The absolute pressure exerted by a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the volume it occupies if the temperature and amount of gas remain unchanged within a closed system.Levine, Ira. N. (1978), p. 12 gives the original definition. Mathematically, Boyle's law can be stated as: or where is the pressure of the gas, is the volume of the gas, and is a constant. Boyle's Law states that when the temperature of a given mass of confined gas is constant, the product of its pressure and volume is also constant. When comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be expressed as: :P_1 V_1 = P_2 V_2. showing that as volume increases, the pressure of a gas decreases proportionally, and ...
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Boyles Law Animated
Boyles is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Charles Boyles (died 1816), English Vice-admiral of the Royal Navy * James Boyles Murray (1789–1866), businessman and leading member of New York society * Emerson R. Boyles (1881–1960), American lawyer and judge *Harry Boyles (1911–2005), pitcher in Major League Baseball * Edgar William Boyles (1921–2001), senior British civil servant who became Under-Secretary at the Inland Revenue (1975–81) * Harlan E. Boyles (1929–2003), politician and public servant, North Carolina State Treasurer (1977–2001) * Erico Boyles Aumentado (1940–2012), former governor of Bohol, congressman, deputy speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives ** Governor Boyles, one of the 44 barangays of the municipality of Ubay, in Bohol, named after Governor Boyles * Peter Boyles (born 1943), radio talk show personality *Kevin Boyles (born 1967), former volleyball player for Canada *Devarr Boyles (born 1970), retired Bermudian prof ...
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Edme Mariotte
Edme Mariotte (; ; c. 162012 May 1684) was a French physicist and priest (abbé). He is particularly well known for formulating Boyle's law independently of Robert Boyle. Mariotte is also credited with designing the first Newton's cradle. Biography Born in Til-Châtel, Edme Mariotte was the youngest son of Simon Mariotte, administrator at the district Til-Châtel (died 16 August 1652), and Catherine Denisot (died 26 September 1636 due to plague). His parents lived in Til-Châtel and had 4 other children: Jean, Denise, Claude, and Catharine. Jean was administrator in the Parlement of Paris from 1630 till his death in 1682. Denise and Claude, both married, stayed in the Dijon region, where as Catharine married Blaise de Beaubrieul, advisor of king Louis de XIV. Catherine and Blaise lived in the same street 16, perhaps on the same address, where Jean lived. The early life of Edme Mariotte is unknown. His title "Sieur de Chazeuil" was probably inherited from his brother Jean in 168 ...
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Daniel Bernoulli
Daniel Bernoulli FRS (; – 27 March 1782) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family from Basel. He is particularly remembered for his applications of mathematics to mechanics, especially fluid mechanics, and for his pioneering work in probability and statistics. His name is commemorated in the Bernoulli's principle, a particular example of the conservation of energy, which describes the mathematics of the mechanism underlying the operation of two important technologies of the 20th century: the carburetor and the airplane wing. Early life Daniel Bernoulli was born in Groningen, in the Netherlands, into a family of distinguished mathematicians.Rothbard, MurrayDaniel Bernoulli and the Founding of Mathematical Economics ''Mises Institute'' (excerpted from ''An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought'') The Bernoulli family came originally from Antwerp, at that time in the Spanish Netherlands ...
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Kinetic Theory Of Gases
Kinetic (Ancient Greek: κίνησις “kinesis”, movement or to move) may refer to: * Kinetic theory, describing a gas as particles in random motion * Kinetic energy, the energy of an object that it possesses due to its motion Art and entertainment * Kinetic art, a form of art involving mechanical and/or random movement, including optical illusions. * ''Kinetic'', the 13th episode of the first season of the TV series ''Smallville'' * ''Kinetic'' (comics), a comic by Allan Heinberg and Kelley Pucklett * "Kinetic" (song), a song by Radiohead Companies * Kinetic Engineering Limited, Indian automotive manufacturer * Kinetic Group, Australian-based public transport company Technology * "Kinetic", Seiko's trademark for its automatic quartz technology * The ''Kinetic camera system'' by Birt Acres (1854–1918), photographer and film pioneer * Kinetic projectile Military terminology * Kinetic military action See also * * * Kinetics (other) * Dynamics (disambi ...
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Molecule
A molecule is a group of two or more atoms held together by attractive forces known as chemical bonds; depending on context, the term may or may not include ions which satisfy this criterion. In quantum physics, organic chemistry, and biochemistry, the distinction from ions is dropped and ''molecule'' is often used when referring to polyatomic ions. A molecule may be homonuclear, that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element, e.g. two atoms in the oxygen molecule (O2); or it may be heteronuclear, a chemical compound composed of more than one element, e.g. water (two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom; H2O). In the kinetic theory of gases, the term ''molecule'' is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. This relaxes the requirement that a molecule contains two or more atoms, since the noble gases are individual atoms. Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds, are typicall ...
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Atom
Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and a number of neutrons. Only the most common variety of hydrogen has no neutrons. Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. Atoms are extremely small, typically around 100  picometers across. They are so small that accurately predicting their behavior using classical physics, as if they were tennis balls for example, is not possible due to quantum effects. More than 99.94% of an atom's mass is in the nucleus. The protons have a positive electric charge, the electrons have a negative electric charge, and the neutrons have no electric charge. If the number of protons and electrons are equal, then the atom is electrically neutral. If an atom has more or fewer electrons than protons, then it has an overall negative or positive charge, respectively – such atoms are called ions. The electrons of an ato ...
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Compressibility Factor
In thermodynamics, the compressibility factor (Z), also known as the compression factor or the gas deviation factor, describes the deviation of a real gas from ideal gas behaviour. It is simply defined as the ratio of the molar volume of a gas to the molar volume of an ideal gas at the same temperature and pressure. It is a useful thermodynamic property for modifying the ideal gas law to account for the real gas behaviour.Properties of Natural Gases
. Includes a chart of compressibility factors versus reduced pressure and reduced temperature (on last page of the PDF document)
In general, deviation from ideal behaviour becomes more significant the closer a gas is to a phase change, the lower the temper ...
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Real Gas
Real gases are nonideal gases whose molecules occupy space and have interactions; consequently, they do not adhere to the ideal gas law. To understand the behaviour of real gases, the following must be taken into account: *compressibility effects; *variable specific heat capacity; * van der Waals forces; *non-equilibrium thermodynamic effects; *issues with molecular dissociation and elementary reactions with variable composition For most applications, such a detailed analysis is unnecessary, and the ideal gas approximation can be used with reasonable accuracy. On the other hand, real-gas models have to be used near the condensation point of gases, near critical points, at very high pressures, to explain the Joule–Thomson effect, and in other less usual cases. The deviation from ideality can be described by the compressibility factor Z. Models Van der Waals model Real gases are often modeled by taking into account their molar weight and molar volume :RT = \left(p + \fra ...
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Gas Laws
The gas laws were developed at the end of the 18th century, when scientists began to realize that relationships between pressure, volume and temperature of a sample of gas could be obtained which would hold to approximation for all gases. Boyle's law In 1662 Robert Boyle studied the relationship between volume and pressure of a gas of fixed amount at constant temperature. He observed that volume of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure at a constant temperature. Boyle's law, published in 1662, states that, at constant temperature, the product of the pressure and volume of a given mass of an ideal gas in a closed system is always constant. It can be verified experimentally using a pressure gauge and a variable volume container. It can also be derived from the kinetic theory of gases: if a container, with a fixed number of molecules inside, is reduced in volume, more molecules will strike a given area of the sides of the container per unit time, causing ...
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Ludwig Boltzmann
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (; 20 February 1844 – 5 September 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher. His greatest achievements were the development of statistical mechanics, and the statistical explanation of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1877 he provided the current definition of entropy, S = k_ \ln \Omega \!, where Ω is the number of microstates whose energy equals the system's energy, interpreted as a measure of statistical disorder of a system. Max Planck named the constant the Boltzmann constant. Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics. It describes how macroscopic observations (such as temperature and pressure) are related to microscopic parameters that fluctuate around an average. It connects thermodynamic quantities (such as heat capacity) to microscopic behavior, whereas, in classical thermodynamics, the only available option would be to measure and tabulate such quantities for various materials. Biography Childhood ...
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