Almost Everywhere
In measure theory (a branch of mathematical analysis), a property holds almost everywhere if, in a technical sense, the set for which the property holds takes up nearly all possibilities. The notion of "almost everywhere" is a companion notion to the concept of measure zero, and is analogous to the notion of ''almost surely'' in probability theory. More specifically, a property holds almost everywhere if it holds for all elements in a set except a subset of measure zero, or equivalently, if the set of elements for which the property holds is conull. In cases where the measure is not complete, it is sufficient that the set be contained within a set of measure zero. When discussing sets of real numbers, the Lebesgue measure is usually assumed unless otherwise stated. The term ''almost everywhere'' is abbreviated ''a.e.''; in older literature ''p.p.'' is used, to stand for the equivalent French language phrase ''presque partout''. A set with full measure is one whose complement i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rectangle Example
In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles. It can also be defined as: an equiangular quadrilateral, since equiangular means that all of its angles are equal (360°/4 = 90°); or a parallelogram containing a right angle. A rectangle with four sides of equal length is a ''square''. The term "oblong" is occasionally used to refer to a nonsquare rectangle. A rectangle with vertices ''ABCD'' would be denoted as . The word rectangle comes from the Latin ''rectangulus'', which is a combination of ''rectus'' (as an adjective, right, proper) and ''angulus'' (angle). A crossed rectangle is a crossed (selfintersecting) quadrilateral which consists of two opposite sides of a rectangle along with the two diagonals (therefore only two sides are parallel). It is a special case of an antiparallelogram, and its angles are not right angles and not all equal, though opposite angles are equal. Other geometries, such as spherical, elliptic, and hyperboli ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

If And Only If
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, "if and only if" (shortened as "iff") is a biconditional logical connective between statements, where either both statements are true or both are false. The connective is biconditional (a statement of material equivalence), and can be likened to the standard material conditional ("only if", equal to "if ... then") combined with its reverse ("if"); hence the name. The result is that the truth of either one of the connected statements requires the truth of the other (i.e. either both statements are true, or both are false), though it is controversial whether the connective thus defined is properly rendered by the English "if and only if"—with its preexisting meaning. For example, ''P if and only if Q'' means that ''P'' is true whenever ''Q'' is true, and the only case in which ''P'' is true is if ''Q'' is also true, whereas in the case of ''P if Q'', there could be other scenarios where ''P'' is true and ''Q' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Measure Theory
In mathematics, the concept of a measure is a generalization and formalization of geometrical measures (length, area, volume) and other common notions, such as mass and probability of events. These seemingly distinct concepts have many similarities and can often be treated together in a single mathematical context. Measures are foundational in probability theory, integration theory, and can be generalized to assume negative values, as with electrical charge. Farreaching generalizations (such as spectral measures and projectionvalued measures) of measure are widely used in quantum physics and physics in general. The intuition behind this concept dates back to ancient Greece, when Archimedes tried to calculate the area of a circle. But it was not until the late 19th and early 20th centuries that measure theory became a branch of mathematics. The foundations of modern measure theory were laid in the works of Émile Borel, Henri Lebesgue, Nikolai Luzin, Johann Radon, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dirichlet Function
In mathematics, the Dirichlet function is the indicator function 1Q or \mathbf_\Q of the set of rational numbers Q, i.e. if ''x'' is a rational number and if ''x'' is not a rational number (i.e. an irrational number). \mathbf 1_\Q(x) = \begin 1 & x \in \Q \\ 0 & x \notin \Q \end It is named after the mathematician Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet. It is an example of pathological function which provides counterexamples to many situations. Topological properties The Dirichlet function is nowhere continuous. Its restrictions to the set of rational numbers and to the set of irrational numbers are constants and therefore continuous. The Dirichlet function is an archetypal example of the Blumberg theorem. The Dirichlet function can be constructed as the double pointwise limit of a sequence of continuous functions, as follows: \forall x \in \R, \quad \mathbf_(x) = \lim_ \left(\lim_\left(\cos(k!\pi x)\right)^\right) for integer ''j'' and ''k''. This shows that the Dirichlet function ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hyperreal Number
In mathematics, the system of hyperreal numbers is a way of treating infinite and infinitesimal (infinitely small but nonzero) quantities. The hyperreals, or nonstandard reals, *R, are an extension of the real numbers R that contains numbers greater than anything of the form :1 + 1 + \cdots + 1 (for any finite number of terms). Such numbers are infinite, and their reciprocals are infinitesimals. The term "hyperreal" was introduced by Edwin Hewitt in 1948. The hyperreal numbers satisfy the transfer principle, a rigorous version of Leibniz's heuristic law of continuity. The transfer principle states that true firstorder statements about R are also valid in *R. For example, the commutative law of addition, , holds for the hyperreals just as it does for the reals; since R is a real closed field, so is *R. Since \sin()=0 for all integers ''n'', one also has \sin()=0 for all hyperintegers H. The transfer principle for ultrapowers is a consequence of Łoś' theorem ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ultrafilter
In the mathematical field of order theory, an ultrafilter on a given partially ordered set (or "poset") P is a certain subset of P, namely a maximal filter on P; that is, a proper filter on P that cannot be enlarged to a bigger proper filter on P. If X is an arbitrary set, its power set \wp(X), ordered by set inclusion, is always a Boolean algebra and hence a poset, and ultrafilters on \wp(X) are usually called X.If X happens to be partially ordered, too, particular care is needed to understand from the context whether an (ultra)filter on \wp(X) or an (ultra)filter just on X is meant; both kinds of (ultra)filters are quite different. Some authors use "(ultra)filter" ''of'' a partial ordered set" vs. "''on'' an arbitrary set"; i.e. they write "(ultra)filter on X" to abbreviate "(ultra)filter of \wp(X)". An ultrafilter on a set X may be considered as a finitely additive measure on X. In this view, every subset of X is either considered " almost everything" (has measure 1) or ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Normal Number
In mathematics, a real number is said to be simply normal in an integer base b if its infinite sequence of digits is distributed uniformly in the sense that each of the b digit values has the same natural density 1/b. A number is said to be normal in base b if, for every positive integer n, all possible strings n digits long have density b−''n''. Intuitively, a number being simply normal means that no digit occurs more frequently than any other. If a number is normal, no finite combination of digits of a given length occurs more frequently than any other combination of the same length. A normal number can be thought of as an infinite sequence of coin flips (binary) or rolls of a die (base 6). Even though there ''will'' be sequences such as 10, 100, or more consecutive tails (binary) or fives (base 6) or even 10, 100, or more repetitions of a sequence such as tailhead (two consecutive coin flips) or 61 (two consecutive rolls of a die), there will also be equally ma ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

ASCII
ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Because of technical limitations of computer systems at the time it was invented, ASCII has just 128 code points, of which only 95 are , which severely limited its scope. All modern computer systems instead use Unicode, which has millions of code points, but the first 128 of these are the same as the ASCII set. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) prefers the name USASCII for this character encoding. ASCII is one of the IEEE milestones. Overview ASCII was developed from telegraph code. Its first commercial use was as a seven bit teleprinter code promoted by Bell data services. Work on the ASCII standard began in May 1961, with the first meeting of the American Standards Association's (ASA) (now the American National Standards ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Shakespeare's Plays
Shakespeare's plays are a canon of approximately 39 dramatic works written by English poet, playwright, and actor William Shakespeare. The exact number of plays—as well as their classifications as tragedy, history, comedy, or otherwise—is a matter of scholarly debate. Shakespeare's plays are widely regarded as being among the greatest in the English language and are continually performed around the world. The plays have been translated into every major living language. Many of his plays appeared in print as a series of quartos, but approximately half of them remained unpublished until 1623, when the posthumous First Folio was published. The traditional division of his plays into tragedies, comedies, and histories follows the categories used in the First Folio. However, modern criticism has labeled some of these plays " problem plays" that elude easy categorisation, or perhaps purposely break generic conventions, and has introduced the term romances for what scholars beli ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuous Function
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Riemann Integral
In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Riemann integral, created by Bernhard Riemann, was the first rigorous definition of the integral of a function on an interval. It was presented to the faculty at the University of Göttingen in 1854, but not published in a journal until 1868. For many functions and practical applications, the Riemann integral can be evaluated by the fundamental theorem of calculus or approximated by numerical integration. Overview Let be a nonnegative realvalued function on the interval , and let be the region of the plane under the graph of the function and above the interval . See the figure on the top right. This region can be expressed in setbuilder notation as S = \left \. We are interested in measuring the area of . Once we have measured it, we will denote the area in the usual way by \int_a^b f(x)\,dx. The basic idea of the Riemann integral is to use very simple approximations for the area of . By taking better and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians AlBiruni and Sharaf alDin alTusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 