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Ahmed Shafik
Ahmed Mohamed Shafik ZakiAlso spelled: ''Shafiq''. ( ar, أحمد محمد شفيق زكى, ; born 25 November 1941) is an Egyptian politician and a former candidate for the presidency of Egypt. He was a senior commander in the Egyptian Air Force The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) ( ar, القوات الجوية المصرية, El Qūwāt El Gawīyä El Maṣrīya), is the Air force, aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces, is responsible for all airborne defence missions and operates all ... and later served as Prime Minister of Egypt The Prime Minister of Egypt () is the head of the Egyptian government. A direct translation of the Arabic-language title is "Minister-President of Egypt" and "President of the Government". The Arabic title can also be translated as "President of ... from 29 January 2011 to 3 March 2011. After a career as a fighter pilot A fighter pilot is a Military aviation, military aviator trained to engage in air-to-air combat, Air-to-ground weaponry ...
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Prime Minister Of Egypt
The Prime Minister of Egypt () is the head of the Egyptian government. A direct translation of the Arabic-language title is "Minister-President of Egypt" and "President of the Government". The Arabic title can also be translated as "President of the Council of Ministers", as is the case with the Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ..., despite the Arabic title being the same in Syria and Egypt. History Egypt has a long history with a prime minister-type position existing in its governance. Under various Islamic Empire This article includes a list of successive Muslim state An Islamic state is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associati ...
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War Of Attrition
The War of Attrition ( ar, حرب الاستنزاف, Ḥarb al-Istinzāf; he, מלחמת ההתשה, Milhemet haHatashah) involved fighting between Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ... and Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ..., Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East. It in ..., the Palestine Liberation Organisation The Pal ...
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Military Science
Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force. It is mainly focused on theory A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, G ..., method, and practice of producing military capabilityMilitary capability is defined by the Australian Defence Force Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local ju ... in a manner consistent with national defense policy. Military science serves to identify the military strategy, strategic, politics, political, economics, economic, psychology, psychological, sociology, social, military oper ...
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Master's Degree
A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professional practice.
A master's degree normally requires previous study at the bachelor's degree, bachelor's level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Within the area studied, master's graduates are expected to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theory, theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, Critical thinking, critical evaluation, or professional application; and the ability to problem solving, solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.


Historical development


Medieval era to 18th century

The ...
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Egyptian Air Academy
The Egyptian Air Academy (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...: الكلية الجوية المصرية) is a college in Bilbeis Belbeis ( ar, بلبيس  ; Bohairic cop, Ⲫⲉⲗⲃⲉⲥ/Ⲫⲉⲗⲃⲏⲥ ') is an ancient fortress A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized ..., Sharqia Governorate Sharqia Governorate ( ar, محافظة الشرقية ', , rural: ) is the 3rd most populous of the governorates of Egypt. Located in the northern part of the country, its capital is the city of Zagazig. Overview Bilbeis is the former capital ..., Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country ...
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Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology () is a branch of medicine and surgery that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a physician who Specialty (medicine), specializes in ophthalmology. The credentials include a degree in medicine, followed by additional four to five years of Residency (medicine), residency training in ophthalmology. Residency training programs for ophthalmology may require a one-year internship with training in internal medicine, pediatrics, or general surgery. Additional specialty training (or fellowship) may be sought in a particular aspect of eye pathology. Ophthalmologists are allowed to prescribe medications to treat eye diseases and perform laser therapy or surgery when needed. Ophthalmologists may participate in academic research on the diagnosis and treatment for eye disorders. Diseases A partial list of the most common diseases treated by ophthalmologists include: * Cataract * Epiphora (medicine), Excessive tearing (tear duct ob ...
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Heliopolis (Cairo Suburb)
Heliopolis ( arz, مصر الجديده, ', ,  "New Egypt") was a suburb outside Cairo, Egypt, which has since merged with Cairo as a district of the city and is one of the more affluent areas of Cairo. It was established in 1905 by the Cairo Electric Railways & Heliopolis Oases Company, Heliopolis Oasis Company headed by the Belgians, Belgian industrialist Édouard Empain and by Boghos Nubar, son of the Egyptian Prime Minister Nubar Pasha. It is the location of the Cairo International Airport. The population of Heliopolis is estimated at some 142,968 individuals (2016). History Baron Empain, a well-known amateur Egyptologist and prominent Belgian entrepreneur, arrived in Egypt in January 1904, intending to rescue one of his Belgian wife's development projects: the construction of a railway line linking Al-Matariyyah to Port Said. Despite losing the railway contract to the British, Empain stayed on in Egypt. In 1905, Empain established the Cairo Electric Railways an ...
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Freedom And Justice Party (Egypt)
The Freedom and Justice Party (FJP; ar-at, حزب الحرية والعدالة, Ḥizb al-Ḥurriyyah wa-l-ʿAdālah) is an Egyptian Islamism, Islamist List of political parties in Egypt, political party. The ex-president of the party, Mohamed Morsi, won the 2012 Egyptian presidential election, 2012 presidential election, and in the 2011–12 Egyptian parliamentary election, 2011 parliamentary election it won more seats than any other party. It is nominally independent, but has strong links to the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt, the largest political group in Egypt.''Foreign Affairs magazine'', September October 2011, "The Unbreakable Muslim Brotherhood", Eric Trager, pp. 114–222 (full text not available for free on internet) The party was banned and dissolved in 2014; however, it continues to function underground. The 2011–12 Egyptian parliamentary election, 2011–12 Egyptian Parliamentary election resulted in the FJP winning 47.2 per cent of all se ...
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Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Mohamed Morsi Eissa Al-AyyatThe spellings of his first and last names vary. survey of 14 news organizations plus Wikipedia in July 2012archive at Wayback Machine
found that 11 used "Mohamed" and four used "Mohammed"; nine used "Morsi", five used "Mursi", and one used "Morsy". The official Egypt State Information Service uses both "Morsi" and "Morsy". (; ar, محمد محمد مرسي عيسى العياط, ALA-LC: ''Muḥammad Muḥammad Mursī ʿĪsā al-ʿAyyāṭ, ''; 8 August 1951 – 17 June 2019) was an Egyptian politician and engineer who served as the fifth president of Egypt, from 30 June 2012 to 3 July 2013, when Egyptian Army ranks, General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi removed him from office in a 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, coup d'état after June ...
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2012 Egyptian Presidential Election
A presidential election was held in Egypt in two rounds, the first on 23 and 24 May 2012 and the second on 16 and 17 June. The Muslim Brotherhood declared early 18 June 2012, that its candidate, Mohamed Morsi, won Egypt's presidential election, which would be the first victory of an Islamist as head of state in the Arab world. It was the second presidential election in Egypt's history with more than one candidate, following the 2005 Egyptian presidential election, 2005 election, and the first presidential election after the 2011 Egyptian revolution which ousted president Hosni Mubarak, during the Arab Spring. However, Morsi's presidency was brief and short-lived, and he later faced June 2013 Egyptian protests, massive protests for and against his rule, only to be ousted in a 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, military coup in July that year. In the first round, with a voter turnout of 46%, the results were split between five major candidates: Mohamed Morsi (25%), Ahmed Shafik (24%), Hamd ...
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Alaa Al Aswany
Alaa Al Aswany ( ar, علاء الأسواني, ; born 26 May 1957) is an Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ... writer, novelist, and a founding member of the political movement Kefaya Kefaya ( arz, كفاية ''kefāya'', , "enough") is the unofficial moniker A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place or thing. Commonly used to express affection, it is a form of endearment and amusement. It .... Early life and career Al Aswany was born on 26 May 1957. His mother, Zainab, came from an aristocratic family; her uncle was a Pasha Pasha or Paşa ( ota, پاشا; tr, paşa; sq, Pashë; ar, باشا), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of t ...
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