Adherent Point
In mathematics, an adherent point (also closure point or point of closure or contact point) Steen, p. 5; Lipschutz, p. 69; Adamson, p. 15. of a subset A of a topological space X, is a point x in X such that every neighbourhood of x (or equivalently, every open neighborhood of x) contains at least one point of A. A point x \in X is an adherent point for A if and only if x is in the closure of A, thus :x \in \operatorname_X A if and only if for all open subsets U \subseteq X, if x \in U \text U \cap A \neq \varnothing. This definition differs from that of a limit point of a set, in that for a limit point it is required that every neighborhood of x contains at least one point of A x. Thus every limit point is an adherent point, but the converse is not true. An adherent point of A is either a limit point of A or an element of A (or both). An adherent point which is not a limit point is an isolated point. Intuitively, having an open set A defined as the area within (but not inc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topological Space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called points, along with an additional structure called a topology, which can be defined as a set of neighbourhoods for each point that satisfy some axioms formalizing the concept of closeness. There are several equivalent definitions of a topology, the most commonly used of which is the definition through open sets, which is easier than the others to manipulate. A topological space is the most general type of a mathematical space that allows for the definition of limits, continuity, and connectedness. Common types of topological spaces include Euclidean spaces, metric spaces and manifolds. Although very general, the concept of topological spaces is fundamental, and used in virtually every branch of modern mathematics. The study of topolog ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Seymour Lipschutz
Seymour Saul Lipschutz (born 1931 died March 2018) was an author of technical books on pure mathematics and probability, including a collection of Schaum's Outlines. Lipschutz received his Ph.D. in 1960 from New York University's Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Courant Institute . He received his BA and MA degrees in Mathematics at Brooklyn College. He was a mathematics professor at Temple University, and before that on the faculty at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. Bibliography *Schaum's Outline of Discrete Mathematics *Schaum's Outline of Probability *Schaum's Outline of Finite Mathematics *Schaum's Outline of Linear Algebra *Schaum's Outline of Beginning Linear Algebra *Schaum's Outline of Set Theory *Schaum's Outline of General Topology *Schaum's Outline of Data Structures *Schaum's Outline of Differential Geometry References Year of death missing 20thcentury American mathematicians 21stcentury American mathematicians Courant Institute of Mathe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tom M
Tom or TOM may refer to: * Tom (given name), a diminutive of Thomas or Tomás or an independent Aramaic given name (and a list of people with the name) Characters * Tom Anderson, a character in ''Beavis and ButtHead'' * Tom Beck, a character in the 1998 American sciencefiction disaster movie '' Deep Impact'' * Tom Buchanan, the main antagonist from the 1925 novel ''The Great Gatsby'' * Tom Cat, a character from the ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons * Tom Lucitor, a character from the American animated series ''Star vs. the Forces of Evil'' * Tom Natsworthy, from the science fantasy novel '' Mortal Engines'' * Tom Nook, a character in ''Animal Crossing'' video game series * Tom Servo, a robot character from the ''Mystery Science Theater 3000'' television series * Tom Sloane, a nonadult character from the animated sitcom ''Daria'' * Talking Tom, the protagonist from the ''Talking Tom & Friends'' franchise * Tom, a character from the '' Deltora Quest'' books by Emily Rodda * Tom, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Limit (mathematics)
In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function (or sequence) approaches as the input (or index) approaches some value. Limits are essential to calculus and mathematical analysis, and are used to define continuity, derivatives, and integrals. The concept of a limit of a sequence is further generalized to the concept of a limit of a topological net, and is closely related to limit and direct limit in category theory. In formulas, a limit of a function is usually written as : \lim_ f(x) = L, (although a few authors may use "Lt" instead of "lim") and is read as "the limit of of as approaches equals ". The fact that a function approaches the limit as approaches is sometimes denoted by a right arrow (→ or \rightarrow), as in :f(x) \to L \text x \to c, which reads "f of x tends to L as x tends to c". History Grégoire de SaintVincent gave the first definition of limit (terminus) of a geometric series in his work ''Opus Geometricum'' (1647): "The ''terminus'' of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subspace Topology
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subspace of a topological space ''X'' is a subset ''S'' of ''X'' which is equipped with a topology induced from that of ''X'' called the subspace topology (or the relative topology, or the induced topology, or the trace topology). Definition Given a topological space (X, \tau) and a subset S of X, the subspace topology on S is defined by :\tau_S = \lbrace S \cap U \mid U \in \tau \rbrace. That is, a subset of S is open in the subspace topology if and only if it is the intersection of S with an open set in (X, \tau). If S is equipped with the subspace topology then it is a topological space in its own right, and is called a subspace of (X, \tau). Subsets of topological spaces are usually assumed to be equipped with the subspace topology unless otherwise stated. Alternatively we can define the subspace topology for a subset S of X as the coarsest topology for which the inclusion map :\iota: S \hookrightarrow X is continuous. More ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topological Subspace
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subspace of a topological space ''X'' is a subset ''S'' of ''X'' which is equipped with a topology induced from that of ''X'' called the subspace topology (or the relative topology, or the induced topology, or the trace topology). Definition Given a topological space (X, \tau) and a subset S of X, the subspace topology on S is defined by :\tau_S = \lbrace S \cap U \mid U \in \tau \rbrace. That is, a subset of S is open in the subspace topology if and only if it is the intersection of S with an open set in (X, \tau). If S is equipped with the subspace topology then it is a topological space in its own right, and is called a subspace of (X, \tau). Subsets of topological spaces are usually assumed to be equipped with the subspace topology unless otherwise stated. Alternatively we can define the subspace topology for a subset S of X as the coarsest topology for which the inclusion map :\iota: S \hookrightarrow X is continuous. More ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Closed Set
In geometry, topology, and related branches of mathematics, a closed set is a set whose complement is an open set. In a topological space, a closed set can be defined as a set which contains all its limit points. In a complete metric space, a closed set is a set which is closed under the limit operation. This should not be confused with a closed manifold. Equivalent definitions By definition, a subset A of a topological space (X, \tau) is called if its complement X \setminus A is an open subset of (X, \tau); that is, if X \setminus A \in \tau. A set is closed in X if and only if it is equal to its closure in X. Equivalently, a set is closed if and only if it contains all of its limit points. Yet another equivalent definition is that a set is closed if and only if it contains all of its boundary points. Every subset A \subseteq X is always contained in its (topological) closure in X, which is denoted by \operatorname_X A; that is, if A \subseteq X then A \subseteq \o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sequential Space
In topology and related fields of mathematics, a sequential space is a topological space whose topology can be completely characterized by its convergent/divergent sequences. They can be thought of as spaces that satisfy a very weak axiom of countability, and all firstcountable spaces (especially metric spaces) are sequential. In any topological space (X, \tau), if a convergent sequence is contained in a closed set C, then the limit of that sequence must be contained in C as well. This property is known as sequential closure. Sequential spaces are precisely those topological spaces for which sequentially closed sets are in fact closed. (These definitions can also be rephrased in terms of sequentially open sets; see below.) Said differently, any topology can be described in terms of nets (also known as Moore–Smith sequences), but those sequences may be "too long" (indexed by too large an ordinal) to compress into a sequence. Sequential spaces are those topological spaces ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Metric Space
In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of '' distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other wellknown examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Interval (mathematics)
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers that contains all real numbers lying between any two numbers of the set. For example, the set of numbers satisfying is an interval which contains , , and all numbers in between. Other examples of intervals are the set of numbers such that , the set of all real numbers \R, the set of nonnegative real numbers, the set of positive real numbers, the empty set, and any singleton (set of one element). Real intervals play an important role in the theory of integration, because they are the simplest sets whose "length" (or "measure" or "size") is easy to define. The concept of measure can then be extended to more complicated sets of real numbers, leading to the Borel measure and eventually to the Lebesgue measure. Intervals are central to interval arithmetic, a general numerical computing technique that automatically provides guaranteed enclosures for arbitrary formulas, even in the presence of uncertainties, mathematical ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subset
In mathematics, set ''A'' is a subset of a set ''B'' if all elements of ''A'' are also elements of ''B''; ''B'' is then a superset of ''A''. It is possible for ''A'' and ''B'' to be equal; if they are unequal, then ''A'' is a proper subset of ''B''. The relationship of one set being a subset of another is called inclusion (or sometimes containment). ''A'' is a subset of ''B'' may also be expressed as ''B'' includes (or contains) ''A'' or ''A'' is included (or contained) in ''B''. A ''k''subset is a subset with ''k'' elements. The subset relation defines a partial order on sets. In fact, the subsets of a given set form a Boolean algebra under the subset relation, in which the join and meet are given by intersection and union, and the subset relation itself is the Boolean inclusion relation. Definition If ''A'' and ''B'' are sets and every element of ''A'' is also an element of ''B'', then: :*''A'' is a subset of ''B'', denoted by A \subseteq B, or equivalently, :* ''B'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 