Abstract Algebra
In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices, and algebras over a field. The term ''abstract algebra'' was coined in the early 20th century to distinguish this area of study from older parts of algebra, and more specifically from elementary algebra, the use of variables to represent numbers in computation and reasoning. Algebraic structures, with their associated homomorphisms, form mathematical categories. Category theory is a formalism that allows a unified way for expressing properties and constructions that are similar for various structures. Universal algebra is a related subject that studies types of algebraic structures as single objects. For example, the structure of groups is a single object in universal algebra, which is called the '' variety of groups''. History Before the nineteenth century, alge ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rubik's Cube V2
The Rubik's Cube is a 3D combination puzzle originally invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik. Originally called the Magic Cube, the puzzle was licensed by Rubik to be sold by Pentangle Puzzles in the UK in 1978, and then by Ideal Toy Corp in 1980 via businessman Tibor Laczi and Seven Towns founder Tom Kremer. The cube was released internationally in 1980 and became one of the most recognized icons in popular culture. It won the 1980 German Game of the Year special award for Best Puzzle. , 350 million cubes had been sold worldwide, making it the world's bestselling puzzle game and bestselling toy. The Rubik's Cube was inducted into the US National Toy Hall of Fame in 2014. On the original classic Rubik's Cube, each of the six faces was covered by nine stickers, each of one of six solid colours: white, red, blue, orange, green, and yellow. Some later versions of the cube have been updated to use coloured plastic panels instea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Variety (universal Algebra)
In universal algebra, a variety of algebras or equational class is the class of all algebraic structures of a given signature satisfying a given set of identities. For example, the groups form a variety of algebras, as do the abelian groups, the rings, the monoids etc. According to Birkhoff's theorem, a class of algebraic structures of the same signature is a variety if and only if it is closed under the taking of homomorphic images, subalgebras and (direct) products. In the context of category theory, a variety of algebras, together with its homomorphisms, forms a category; these are usually called ''finitary algebraic categories''. A ''covariety'' is the class of all coalgebraic structures of a given signature. Terminology A variety of algebras should not be confused with an algebraic variety, which means a set of solutions to a system of polynomial equations. They are formally quite distinct and their theories have little in common. The term "variety of algebras" re ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

George Peacock (mathematician)
George Peacock FRS (9 April 1791 – 8 November 1858) was an English mathematician and Anglican cleric. He founded what has been called the British algebra of logic. Early life Peacock was born on 9 April 1791 at Thornton Hall, Denton, near Darlington, County Durham. His father, Thomas Peacock, was a priest of the Church of England, incumbent and for 50 years curate of the parish of Denton, where he also kept a school. In early life Peacock did not show any precocity of genius, and was more remarkable for daring feats of climbing than for any special attachment to study. Initially, he received his elementary education from his father and then at Sedbergh School, and at 17 years of age, he was sent to Richmond School under James Tate, a graduate of Cambridge University. At this school he distinguished himself greatly both in classics and in the rather elementary mathematics then required for entrance at Cambridge. In 1809 he became a student of Trinity College, Cambridge. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Imaginary Number
An imaginary number is a real number multiplied by the imaginary unit , is usually used in engineering contexts where has other meanings (such as electrical current) which is defined by its property . The square of an imaginary number is . For example, is an imaginary number, and its square is . By definition, zero is considered to be both real and imaginary. Originally coined in the 17th century by René Descartes as a derogatory term and regarded as fictitious or useless, the concept gained wide acceptance following the work of Leonhard Euler (in the 18th century) and AugustinLouis Cauchy and Carl Friedrich Gauss (in the early 19th century). An imaginary number can be added to a real number to form a complex number of the form , where the real numbers and are called, respectively, the ''real part'' and the ''imaginary part'' of the complex number. History Although the Greek mathematician and engineer Hero of Alexandria is noted as the first to present a calculati ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Negative Number
In mathematics, a negative number represents an opposite. In the real number system, a negative number is a number that is less than zero. Negative numbers are often used to represent the magnitude of a loss or deficiency. A debt that is owed may be thought of as a negative asset. If a quantity, such as the charge on an electron, may have either of two opposite senses, then one may choose to distinguish between those senses—perhaps arbitrarily—as ''positive'' and ''negative''. Negative numbers are used to describe values on a scale that goes below zero, such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales for temperature. The laws of arithmetic for negative numbers ensure that the commonsense idea of an opposite is reflected in arithmetic. For example, −(−3) = 3 because the opposite of an opposite is the original value. Negative numbers are usually written with a minus sign in front. For example, −3 represents a negative quantity with a magnitude of three, and is pronounced "min ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Leonhard Euler
Leonhard Euler ( , ; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, geographer, logician and engineer who founded the studies of graph theory and topology and made pioneering and influential discoveries in many other branches of mathematics such as analytic number theory, complex analysis, and infinitesimal calculus. He introduced much of modern mathematical terminology and notation, including the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy and music theory. Euler is held to be one of the greatest mathematicians in history and the greatest of the 18th century. A statement attributed to PierreSimon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all." Carl Friedrich Gauss remarked: "The study of Euler's works will remain the best school for the different fields of mathematics, and nothing else can replace it." ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

La Géométrie
''La Géométrie'' was published in 1637 as an appendix to ''Discours de la méthode'' ('' Discourse on the Method''), written by René Descartes. In the ''Discourse'', he presents his method for obtaining clarity on any subject. ''La Géométrie'' and two other appendices, also by Descartes, ''La Dioptrique'' (''Optics'') and ''Les Météores'' (''Meteorology''), were published with the ''Discourse'' to give examples of the kinds of successes he had achieved following his method (as well as, perhaps, considering the contemporary European social climate of intellectual competitiveness, to show off a bit to a wider audience). The work was the first to propose the idea of uniting algebra and geometry into a single subject and invented an algebraic geometry called analytic geometry, which involves reducing geometry to a form of arithmetic and algebra and translating geometric shapes into algebraic equations. For its time this was groundbreaking. It also contributed to the mathem ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

New Algebra
New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of Kpop group The Boyz Albums and EPs * ''New'' (album), by Paul McCartney, 2013 * ''New'' (EP), by Regurgitator, 1995 Songs * "New" (Daya song), 2017 * "New" (Paul McCartney song), 2013 * "New" (No Doubt song), 1999 *"new", by Loona from '' Yves'', 2017 *"The New", by Interpol from ''Turn On the Bright Lights'', 2002 Acronyms * Net economic welfare, a proposed macroeconomic indicator * Net explosive weight, also known as net explosive quantity * Network of enlightened Women, a conservative university women's organization * Next Entertainment World, a South Korean film distribution company Identification codes * Nepal Bhasa language ISO 639 language code * New Century Financial Corporation (NYSE stock abbreviation) * Northeast Wrestling, a professional wrestling promotion in the northeastern United States Transport * New Orleans Lakefront A ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

François Viète
François Viète, Seigneur de la Bigotière ( la, Franciscus Vieta; 1540 – 23 February 1603), commonly know by his mononym, Vieta, was a French mathematician whose work on new algebra was an important step towards modern algebra, due to its innovative use of letters as parameters in equations. He was a lawyer by trade, and served as a privy councillor to both Henry III and Henry IV of France. Biography Early life and education Viète was born at FontenayleComte in presentday Vendée. His grandfather was a merchant from La Rochelle. His father, Etienne Viète, was an attorney in FontenayleComte and a notary in Le Busseau. His mother was the aunt of Barnabé Brisson, a magistrate and the first president of parliament during the ascendancy of the Catholic League of France. Viète went to a Franciscan school and in 1558 studied law at Poitiers, graduating as a Bachelor of Laws in 1559. A year later, he began his career as an attorney in his native town. From th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Muhammad Ibn Mūsā AlKhwārizmī
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī ( ar, محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي, Muḥammad ibn Musā alKhwārazmi; ), or alKhwarizmi, was a Persians, Persian polymath from Khwarazm, who produced vastly influential works in Mathematics in medieval Islam, mathematics, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, astronomy, and Geography and cartography in medieval Islam, geography. Around 820 CE, he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.Maher, P. (1998), "From AlJabr to Algebra", ''Mathematics in School'', 27(4), 14–15. AlKhwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra (''The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing'', c. 813–833 CEOaks, J. (2009), "Polynomials and Equations in Arabic Algebra", ''Archive for History of Exact Sciences'', 63(2), 169–203.) presented the first systematic solution of linear equation, linear and quadratic equations. One of his principal achievements in algebra was his demon ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rhetorical Algebra
Algebra can essentially be considered as doing computations similar to those of arithmetic but with nonnumerical mathematical objects. However, until the 19th century, algebra consisted essentially of the theory of equations. For example, the fundamental theorem of algebra belongs to the theory of equations and is not, nowadays, considered as belonging to algebra (in fact, every proof must use the completeness of the real numbers, which is not an algebraic property). This article describes the history of the theory of equations, called here "algebra", from the origins to the emergence of algebra as a separate area of mathematics. Etymology The word "algebra" is derived from the Arabic word الجبر ''aljabr'', and this comes from the treatise written in the year 830 by the medieval Persian mathematician, Muhammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī, whose Arabic title, '' Kitāb almuḫtaṣar fī ḥisāb alğabr walmuqābala'', can be translated as ''The Compendious Book on Calcu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebraic Equations
In mathematics, an algebraic equation or polynomial equation is an equation of the form :P = 0 where ''P'' is a polynomial with coefficients in some field, often the field of the rational numbers. For many authors, the term ''algebraic equation'' refers only to ''univariate equations'', that is polynomial equations that involve only one variable. On the other hand, a polynomial equation may involve several variables. In the case of several variables (the ''multivariate'' case), the term ''polynomial equation'' is usually preferred to ''algebraic equation''. For example, :x^53x+1=0 is an algebraic equation with integer coefficients and :y^4 + \frac  \frac + xy^2 + y^2 + \frac = 0 is a multivariate polynomial equation over the rationals. Some but not all polynomial equations with rational coefficients have a solution that is an algebraic expression that can be found using a finite number of operations that involve only those same types of coefficients (that is, can be solved a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 