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1990s American Drama Television Series
Year 199 ( CXCIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was sometimes known as year 952 ''Ab urbe condita''. The denomination 199 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Events By place Roman Empire * Mesopotamia is partitioned into two Roman provinces divided by the Euphrates, Mesopotamia and Osroene. * Emperor Septimius Severus lays siege to the city-state Hatra in Central-Mesopotamia, but fails to capture the city despite breaching the walls. * Two new legions, I Parthica and III Parthica, are formed as a permanent garrison. China * Battle of Yijing: Chinese warlord Yuan Shao defeats Gongsun Zan. Korea * Geodeung succeeds Suro of Geumgwan Gaya, as king of the Korean kingdom of Gaya (traditional date). By topic Religion * Pope Zephyrinus succeeds Pope Vict ...
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Roman Numerals
Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers are written with combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet, each letter with a fixed integer value, modern style uses only these seven: The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. From the 14th century on, Roman numerals began to be replaced by Arabic numerals; however, this process was gradual, and the use of Roman numerals persists in some applications to this day. One place they are often seen is on clock faces. For instance, on the clock of Big Ben (designed in 1852), the hours from 1 to 12 are written as: The notations and can be read as "one less than five" (4) and "one less than ten" (9), although there is a tradition favouring representation of "4" as "" on Roman numeral clocks. Other common uses include year numbers on monuments and building ...
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Yuan Shao
Yuan Shao (, ; died 28 June 202), courtesy name Benchu (), was a Chinese military general, politician, and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty. He occupied the northern territories of China during the civil wars that occurred towards the end of the Han dynasty. He was also an elder half-brother of Yuan Shu, a warlord who controlled the Huai River region, though the two were not on good terms with each other. One of the most powerful warlords of his time, Yuan Shao spearheaded a coalition of warlords against Dong Zhuo, who held Emperor Xian hostage in the imperial capital, Luoyang, but failed due to internal disunity. In 200, he launched a campaign against his rival Cao Cao but was defeated at the Battle of Guandu. He died of illness two years later in Ye. His eventual failure despite his illustrious family background and geographical advantages was commonly blamed on his indecisiveness and inability to heed the advice of his advisors. Family backgroun ...
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Qin Yilu
Qin Yilu (died 199) was a military officer who served under the general and warlord Lü Bu in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. Allowing for variant writing in the records, Qin Yilu was probably the same person as two others named Qin Yi (秦翊 and 秦誼). Life Born in Yunzhong Commandery (雲中郡; west of present-day Togtoh County, Inner Mongolia), Qin Yilu served under Lü Bu, who was also from Bing Province like him. In 192, Qin Yilu was one of two men whom Lü Bu ordered to ambush and assassinate the warlord Dong Zhuo in Chang'an while in disguise as guards. He apparently followed Lü Bu when the latter fled from Chang'an and roamed around the Central Plains before seizing control of Xu Province from the warlord Liu Bei. When Lü Bu was besieged by the allied forces of Cao Cao and Liu Bei at the Battle of Xiapi in 198, Lü Bu sent Qin Yilu to seek reinforcements from the warlords Zhang Yang and Yuan Shu. Qin Yilu's wife, Lady Du (杜氏) and their s ...
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Chen Ji (Chen Shi's Son)
Chen Ji (129 – July 199According to the "Stele of Master Chen, Minister Herald of Later Han" by Handan Chun (recorded in volume 19 of ''Gu Wen Yuan''), Chen Ji died of illness, aged 71 (by East Asian reckoning), in the 6th month of the 4th year of the ''Jian'an'' era of Liu Xie's reign. This corresponds to 11 July to 9 August 199 on the Julian calendar. (《古文苑卷十九·後漢鴻臚陳君碑》邯鄲淳撰:不幸寢疾,年七十有一,建安四年六月卒。)), courtesy name Yuanfang, was an official and scholar who lived during the Eastern Han dynasty of China. Life Chen Ji was from Xu County (), Yingchuan Commandery (), which is present-day Xuchang, Henan. His father Chen Shi was a notable official who served from the reign of Emperor Huan ( 146–168) well into the early reign of Emperor Ling ( 168–189). Due to the Disasters of the Partisan Prohibitions in 166 and 169, Chen Ji did not enter government service and instead spent his time reading and w ...
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Lü Bu
Lü Bu () (died 7 February 199), courtesy name Fengxian, was a Chinese military general, politician, and warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of Imperial China. Originally a subordinate of a minor warlord Ding Yuan, he betrayed and murdered Ding Yuan and defected to Dong Zhuo, the warlord who controlled the Han central government in the early 190s. In 192, he turned against Dong Zhuo and killed him after being instigated by Wang Yun and Shisun Rui, but was later defeated and driven away by Dong Zhuo's followers. From 192 to early 195, Lü Bu wandered around central and northern China, consecutively seeking shelter under warlords such as Yuan Shu, Yuan Shao and Zhang Yang. In 194, he managed to take control of Yan Province from the warlord Cao Cao with help from defectors from Cao's side, but Cao took back his territories within two years. In 195, Lü Bu turned against Liu Bei, who had offered him refuge in Xu Province, and seized control of the pr ...
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Gao Shun
Gao Shun () (died 7 February 199) was a military officer serving the warlord Lü Bu during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. Although he only had 700 men under his command, his unit was nicknamed as the "camp crusher (or formation breaker)" (陷陣營) for its destructive charges. Gao came to be known as Lü Bu's most able commander. His noted accomplishments included conquest of Peicheng (沛城) and the subsequent victory over a combined force led by Xiahou Dun and Liu Bei. In the same year, however, Cao personally laid a siege on Lü Bu's base in Xiapi, and defeated and captured Lü Bu. Gao was then executed along with his lord. Life According to Pei Songzhi's annotation in Chen Shou's '' Records of the Three Kingdoms,'' Gao Shun, from Shangdang Commandery, was a stern and incorrupt man, with an air of authority and few words. As an unblemished and pure person, Gao refused alcohol and undue gifts. It is also stated in ''Records of Heroes'' (英雄記) by Wang Can ...
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February 7
Events Pre-1600 * 457 – Leo I becomes the Eastern Roman emperor. * 987 – Bardas Phokas the Younger and Bardas Skleros, Byzantine generals of the military elite, begin a wide-scale rebellion against Emperor Basil II. *1301 – Edward of Caernarvon (later king Edward II of England) becomes the first English Prince of Wales. *1313 – King Thihathu founds the Pinya Kingdom as the de jure successor state of the Pagan Kingdom. * 1365 – Albert III of Mecklenburg (King Albert of Sweden) grants city rights to Ulvila ( sv, Ulvsby). * 1497 – In Florence, Italy, supporters of Girolamo Savonarola burn cosmetics, art, and books, in a " Bonfire of the vanities". 1601–1900 *1756 – Guaraní War: The leader of the Guaraní rebels, Sepé Tiaraju, is killed in a skirmish with Spanish and Portuguese troops. * 1783 – American Revolutionary War: French and Spanish forces lift the Great Siege of Gibraltar. * 1795 – The 11th Am ...
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Pope
The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, 'father'), also known as supreme pontiff ( or ), Roman pontiff () or sovereign pontiff, is the bishop of Rome (or historically the patriarch of Rome), head of the worldwide Catholic Church, and has also served as the head of state or sovereign of the Papal States and later the Vatican City State since the eighth century. From a Catholic viewpoint, the primacy of the bishop of Rome is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom Petrine primacy, primacy was conferred by Jesus, who gave Peter the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the Church would be built. The current pope is Pope Francis, Francis, who was 2013 papal conclave, elected on 13 March 2013. While his office is called the papacy, the ecclesiastical jurisdiction, jurisdiction of the episcopal see is called the Holy See. It is the Holy See that is the sovereign enti ...
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Pope Victor I
Pope Victor I (died 199) was the bishop of Rome in the late second century (189–199 A.D.). The dates of his tenure are uncertain, but one source states he became pope in 189 and gives the year of his death as 199.Kirsch, Johann Peter (1912). "Pope St. Victor I" in ''The Catholic Encyclopedia''. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company. He was born in the Roman Province of Africa—probably in Leptis Magna (or Tripolitania). He was later considered a saint. His feast day was celebrated on 28 July as "St Victor I, Pope and Martyr". Biography The primary sources vary over the dates assigned to Victor's episcopate, but indicate it included the last decade of the second century. Eusebius puts his accession in the tenth year of Commodus (i.e. A.D. 189), which is accepted by Lipsius as the correct date. Jerome's version of the Chronicle puts his accession in the reign of Pertinax, or the first year of Septimius Severus (i.e. 193), while the Armenian version puts it in the seventh ...
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Pope Zephyrinus
Pope Zephyrinus was the bishop of Rome from 199 to his death on 20 December 217. He was born in Rome, and succeeded Victor I. Upon his death on 20 December 217, he was succeeded by his principal advisor, Callixtus I. He is known for combating heresies and defending the divinity of Christ. Papacy During the 18-year pontificate of Zephyrinus, the young Church endured persecution under the Emperor Septimius Severus until his death in the year 211. To quote Alban Butler, "this holy pastor was the support and comfort of the distressed flock".A. Butler, ''Lives of the Saints'' Vol VIII, 1866 According to St. Optatus, Zephyrinus also combated new heresies and apostasies, chief of which were Marcion, Praxeas, Valentine and the Montanists. Eusebius insists that Zephyrinus fought vigorously against the blasphemies of the two Theodotuses, who in response treated him with contempt, but later called him the greatest defender of the divinity of Christ. Although he was not physically ...
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Gaya Confederacy
Gaya (, ) was a Korean confederacy of territorial polities in the Nakdong River basin of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. The traditional period used by historians for Gaya chronology is AD 42–532. According to archaeological evidence in the third and fourth centuries some of the city-states of Byeonhan evolved into the Gaya confederacy, which was later annexed by Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The individual polities that made up the Gaya confederacy have been characterized as small city-states. The material culture remains of Gaya culture mainly consist of burials and their contents of mortuary goods that have been excavated by archaeologists. Archaeologists interpret mounded burial cemeteries of the late third and early fourth centuries such as Daeseong-dong in Gimhae and Bokcheon-dong in Busan as the royal burial grounds of Gaya polities. Names Although most commonly referred to as Gaya (가야; 加耶, 伽� ...
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Korea
Korea ( ko, 한국, or , ) is a peninsular region in East Asia. Since 1945, it has been divided at or near the 38th parallel, with North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) comprising its northern half and South Korea (Republic of Korea) comprising its southern half. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. The peninsula is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea). During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between three states, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla, together known as the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the second half of the 1st millennium, Silla defeated and conquered Baekje and Goguryeo, leading to the " Unified Silla" period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north, superseding former Goguryeo. Unified Silla eventually collapsed into three separate states due to civ ...
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